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dc.contributor.authorWang, Jinxia
dc.contributor.authorSun, Xiaoying
dc.contributor.authorLu, Jiachen
dc.contributor.authorDou, HaoRan
dc.contributor.authorLei, Yi
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-12T10:04:41Z
dc.date.available2021-07-12T10:04:41Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationWang, J., Sun, X., Lu, J., Dou, H., & Lei, Y. (2021). Generalization gradients for fear and disgust in human associative learning. <i>Scientific Reports</i>, <i>11</i>, Article 14210. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93544-7" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93544-7</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_98990753
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77099
dc.description.abstractPrevious research indicates that excessive fear is a critical feature in anxiety disorders; however, recent studies suggest that disgust may also contribute to the etiology and maintenance of some anxiety disorders. It remains unclear if differences exist between these two threat-related emotions in conditioning and generalization. Evaluating different patterns of fear and disgust learning would facilitate a deeper understanding of how anxiety disorders develop. In this study, 32 college students completed threat conditioning tasks, including conditioned stimuli paired with frightening or disgusting images. Fear and disgust were divided into two randomly ordered blocks to examine differences by recording subjective US expectancy ratings and eye movements in the conditioning and generalization process. During conditioning, differing US expectancy ratings (fear vs. disgust) were found only on CS-, which may demonstrated that fear is associated with inferior discrimination learning. During the generalization test, participants exhibited greater US expectancy ratings to fear-related GS1 (generalized stimulus) and GS2 relative to disgust GS1 and GS2. Fear led to longer reaction times than disgust in both phases, and the pupil size and fixation duration for fear stimuli were larger than for disgust stimuli, suggesting that disgust generalization has a steeper gradient than fear generalization. These findings provide preliminary evidence for differences between fear- and disgust-related stimuli in conditioning and generalization, and suggest insights into treatment for anxiety and other fear- or disgust-related disorders.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScientific Reports
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.titleGeneralization gradients for fear and disgust in human associative learning
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202107124284
dc.contributor.laitosPsykologian laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosDepartment of Psychologyen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn2045-2322
dc.relation.volume11
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2021
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.subject.ysoinho
dc.subject.ysopelko
dc.subject.ysoahdistus
dc.subject.ysohoitomenetelmät
dc.subject.ysomielenterveyshäiriöt
dc.subject.ysoehdollistaminen
dc.subject.ysotunteet
dc.subject.ysoahdistuneisuushäiriöt
dc.subject.ysooppiminen
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p16265
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jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p392
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jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p21091
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p2945
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1038/s41598-021-93544-7
jyx.fundinginformationThis work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant NO. 31871130]; Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions (2019SHIBS0003; 2021SHIBS0003); Guangdong Key Project in “Development of new tools for diagnosis and treatment of Autism” (2018B030335001).


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