Common and separable behavioral and neural mechanisms underlie the generalization of fear and disgust
Wang, J., Sun, X., Becker, B., & Lei, Y. (2022). Common and separable behavioral and neural mechanisms underlie the generalization of fear and disgust. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 116, Article 110519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2022.110519
Embargoed until: 2023-06-08Request copy from author
© 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Generalization represents the transfer of a conditioned responses to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus (CS). Previous studies on generalization of defensive avoidance responses have primarily focused on fear and have neglected disgust generalization, which represents a key pathological mechanism in some anxiety disorders. In the present study we examined common and distinct mechanisms of fear and disgust generalization by means of a fear or disgust multi-CS conditioning and generalization paradigm with concomitant event-related potential (ERPs) acquisition in n = 62 subjects. We demonstrate that compared to fear, disgust-relevant generalized stimuli (GS) elicited larger expectancy ratings and longer reaction times (RTs) reflecting stronger ratings of ‘risk’. On the electrophysiological level, increased P2 amplitudes were found in response to conditioned CS+ versus CS− across both domains, possibly reflecting higher motivational and attentional salience of aversive conditioned stimuli per se. Contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude was significantly larger for disgust-CS+ than disgust-CS−, showing stronger preparation of the disgust US. Additionally, we found that the contingent negative variation (CNV) fear generalization gradient, and CNV amplitude were increased with similarity to CS+. In contrast the CNV to disgust-GS did not differ and did not reflect disgust generalization. Together this may indicate that the CNV represents a highly fear-specific index for generalization learning. This study provides the first neurobiological evidence for common and distinct generalization learning in fear versus disgust suggesting that dysregulations in separable defensive avoidance mechanisms may underly different anxiety disorder subtypes. ...
ISSN Search the Publication Forum0278-5846
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
Additional information about fundingThe work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant Numbers, 31871130), Guangdong Key Project in “Development of new tools for diagnosis and treatment of Autism” (2018B030335001).
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Influence of Perceptual and Conceptual Information on Fear Generalization : A Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Study Wang, Jinxia; E, Mei; Wu, Qi; Xie, Tao; Dou, Haoran; Lei, Yi (Springer, 2021)Learned fear can be generalized through both perceptual and conceptual information. This study investigated how perceptual and conceptual similarities influence this generalization process. Twenty-three healthy volunteers ...
Cardiac cycle and respiration phase affect responses to the conditioned stimulus in young adults trained in trace eyeblink conditioning Waselius, Tomi; Xu, Weiyong; Sparre, Julia Isabella; Penttonen, Markku; Nokia, Miriam S. (American Physiological Society, 2022)Rhythms of breathing and heartbeat are linked to each other as well as to rhythms of the brain. Our recent studies suggest that presenting the conditioned stimulus during expiration or during the diastolic phase of the ...
Conditioned generalisation in generalised anxiety disorder : the role of concurrent perceptual and conceptual cues Wang, Jinxia; Wang, Yizhen; Liao, Meiling; Zou, Yefeng; Lei, Yi; Zhu, Yuxi (Routledge, 2021)Previous research in extinction indicates no difference in US expectancies for aversive and non-aversive unconditioned stimuli (USs). In this study, we bridged these topics by examining how concurrent perceptual and ...
Social exclusion influences conditioned fear acquisition and generalization : a mediating effect from the medial prefrontal cortex Haoran, Dou; Yi, Lei; Xiaojun, Cheng; Jinxia, Wang; Leppänen, Paavo H.T. (Elsevier, 2020)Fear acquisition and generalization play key roles in promoting the survival of mammals and contribute to anxiety disorders. While previous research has provided much evidence for the repercussions of social exclusion on ...
Generalization gradients for fear and disgust in human associative learning Wang, Jinxia; Sun, Xiaoying; Lu, Jiachen; Dou, HaoRan; Lei, Yi (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021)Previous research indicates that excessive fear is a critical feature in anxiety disorders; however, recent studies suggest that disgust may also contribute to the etiology and maintenance of some anxiety disorders. It ...