Attentional Processes in Children With Attentional Problems or Reading Difficulties as Revealed Using Brain Event-Related Potentials and Their Source Localization
Santhana Gopalan, P. R., Loberg, O., Lohvansuu, K., McCandliss, B., Hämäläinen, J., & Leppänen, P. (2020). Attentional Processes in Children With Attentional Problems or Reading Difficulties as Revealed Using Brain Event-Related Potentials and Their Source Localization. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, Article 160. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00160
Published inFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
© 2020 Santhana Gopalan, Loberg, Lohvansuu, McCandliss, Hämäläinen and Leppänen
Visual attention-related processes include three functional sub-processes: alerting, orienting, and inhibition. We examined these sub-processes using reaction times, event-related potentials (ERPs), and their neuronal source activations during the Attention Network Test (ANT) in control children, attentional problems (AP) children, and reading difficulties (RD) children. During the ANT, electroencephalography was measured using 128 electrodes on three groups of Finnish sixth-graders aged 12–13 years (control = 77; AP = 15; RD = 23). Participants were asked to detect the direction of a middle target fish within a group of five fish. The target stimulus was either preceded by a cue (center, double, or spatial), or without a cue, to manipulate the alerting and orienting sub-processes of attention. The direction of the target fish was either congruent or incongruent in relation to the flanker fish, thereby manipulating the inhibition sub-processes of attention. Reaction time performance showed no differences between groups in alerting, orienting, and inhibition effects. The group differences in ERPs were only found at the source level. Neuronal source analysis in the AP children revealed a larger alerting effect (double-cued vs. non-cued target stimuli) than control and RD children in the left occipital lobe. Control children showed a smaller orienting effect (spatially cued vs. center-cued target stimuli) in the left occipital lobe than AP and RD children. No group differences were found for the neuronal sources related to the inhibition effect. The neuronal activity differences related to sub-processes of attention in the AP and RD groups suggest different underlying mechanisms for attentional and reading problems. ...
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Related funder(s)Academy of Finland; European Commission
Funding program(s)Academy Programme, AoF
The content of the publication reflects only the author’s view. The funder is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Additional information about fundingThis work was supported by the Horizon 2020, European Training Network: ChildBrain Advancing brain research in children’s developmental neurocognitive disorders, No. 641652, and the Academy of Finland, TULOS-program project: eSeek−Internet and Learning Difficulties: A multidisciplinary approach for understanding reading in new media, No. 274022.
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