Antipredator strategies of pupae : how to avoid predation in an immobile life stage?
Lindstedt, C., Murphy, L., & Mappes, J. (2019). Antipredator strategies of pupae : how to avoid predation in an immobile life stage?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences, 374(1783), Article 20190069. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0069
DisciplineBiologisten vuorovaikutusten huippututkimusyksikköEkologia ja evoluutiobiologiaCentre of Excellence in Biological Interactions ResearchEcology and Evolutionary Biology
© 2019 The Author(s)
Antipredator strategies of the pupal stage in insects have received little attention in comparison to larval or adult stages. This is despite the fact that predation risk can be high during the pupal stage, making it a critical stage for subsequent fitness. The immobile pupae are not, however, defenceless; a wide range of antipredator strategies have evolved against invertebrate and vertebrate predators. The most common strategy seems to be ‘avoiding encounters with predators' by actively hiding in vegetation and soil or via cryptic coloration and masquerade. Pupae have also evolved behavioural and secondary defences such as defensive toxins, physical defences or deimatic movements and sounds. Interestingly, warning coloration used to advertise unprofitability has evolved very rarely, even though the pupal stage often contains defensive toxins in chemically defended species. In some species, pupae gain protection from conspecifics or mimic chemical and auditory signals and thereby manipulate other species to protect them. Our literature survey highlights the importance of studying selection pressures across an individual's life stages to predict how ontogenetic variation in selective environments shapes individual fitness and population dynamics in insects. Finally, we also suggest interesting avenues for future research to pursue. ...
PublisherThe Royal Society Publishing
Publication in research information system
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Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Centre of Excellence, AoF
Additional information about fundingThis study was funded by the Academy of Finland via Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions.
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