Does education protect against depression? Evidence from the Young Finns Study using Mendelian randomization
Viinikainen, J., Bryson, A., Böckerman, P., Elovainio, M., Pitkänen, N., Pulkki-Råback, L., Lehtimäki, T., Raitakari, O., & Pehkonen, J. (2018). Does education protect against depression? Evidence from the Young Finns Study using Mendelian randomization. Preventive Medicine, 115, 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.026
Julkaistu sarjassaPreventive Medicine
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
Using participants (N = 1733) drawn from the nationally representative longitudinal Young Finns Study (YFS) we estimate the effect of education on depressive symptoms. In 2007, when the participants were between 30 and 45 years old, they reported their depressive symptoms using a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory. Education was measured using register information on the highest completed level of education in 2007, which was converted to years of education. To identify a causal relationship between education and depressive symptoms we use an instrumental variables approach (Mendelian randomization, MR) with a genetic risk score as an instrument for years of education. The genetic risk score was based on 74 genetic variants, which were associated with years of education in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Because the genetic variants are randomly assigned at conception, they induce exogenous variation in years of education and thus identify a causal effect if the assumptions of the MR approach are met. In Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation years of education in 2007 were negatively associated with depressive symptoms in 2007 (b = −0.027, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = −0.040, −0.015). However, the results based on Mendelian randomization suggested that the effect is not causal (b = 0.017; 95% CI = −0.144, 0.178). This indicates that omitted variables correlated with education and depression may bias the linear regression coefficients and exogenous variation in education caused by differences in genetic make-up does not seem to protect against depressive symptoms. ...
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Rahoitusohjelmat(t)Strategisen tutkimuksen ohjelmat STN, SA
Lisätietoja rahoituksestaThe Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: grants 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117787 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); Juho Vainio Foundation; Paavo Nurmi Foundation; Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research; Finnish Cultural Foundation; Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; Emil Aaltonen Foundation; Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation; The Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation (grant to Laura Pulkki-Råback) Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association: and EU Horizon 2020 (grant 755320 for TAXINOMISIS). Jutta Viinikainen and Jaakko Pehkonen acknowledge financial support from the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation (grants 6664 and 6646). Petri Böckerman thanks the Strategic Research Council funding for the project Work, Inequality and Public Policy (293120). ...
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Kari, Jaana T.; Viinikainen, Jutta; Böckerman, Petri; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Pitkänen, Niina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Pahkala, Katja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pehkonen, Jaakko (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020)Physical inactivity is a major health risk worldwide. Observational studies suggest that higher education is positively related to physical activity, but it is not clear whether this relationship constitutes a causal effect. ...
Böckerman, Petri; Viinikainen, Jutta; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hakulinen, Christian; Pitkänen, Niina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Raitakari, Olli T. (Elsevier, 2017)Objectives The aim of this explorative study was to examine the effect of education on obesity using Mendelian randomization. Methods Participants (N = 2011) were from the on-going nationally representative Young ...
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