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dc.contributor.authorViinikainen, Jutta
dc.contributor.authorBryson, Alex
dc.contributor.authorBöckerman, Petri
dc.contributor.authorElovainio, Marko
dc.contributor.authorPitkänen, Niina
dc.contributor.authorPulkki-Råback, Laura
dc.contributor.authorLehtimäki, Terho
dc.contributor.authorRaitakari, Olli
dc.contributor.authorPehkonen, Jaakko
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-14T12:11:33Z
dc.date.available2019-10-01T21:35:36Z
dc.date.issued2018fi
dc.identifier.citationViinikainen, J., Bryson, A., Böckerman, P., Elovainio, M., Pitkänen, N., Pulkki-Råback, L., . . . Pehkonen, J. (2018). Does education protect against depression? Evidence from the Young Finns Study using Mendelian randomization. <em>Preventive Medicine</em>, 115, 134-139. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.026">doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.026</a>fi
dc.identifier.otherTUTKAID_78656
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/60615
dc.description.abstractUsing participants (N = 1733) drawn from the nationally representative longitudinal Young Finns Study (YFS) we estimate the effect of education on depressive symptoms. In 2007, when the participants were between 30 and 45 years old, they reported their depressive symptoms using a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory. Education was measured using register information on the highest completed level of education in 2007, which was converted to years of education. To identify a causal relationship between education and depressive symptoms we use an instrumental variables approach (Mendelian randomization, MR) with a genetic risk score as an instrument for years of education. The genetic risk score was based on 74 genetic variants, which were associated with years of education in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Because the genetic variants are randomly assigned at conception, they induce exogenous variation in years of education and thus identify a causal effect if the assumptions of the MR approach are met. In Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation years of education in 2007 were negatively associated with depressive symptoms in 2007 (b = −0.027, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = −0.040, −0.015). However, the results based on Mendelian randomization suggested that the effect is not causal (b = 0.017; 95% CI = −0.144, 0.178). This indicates that omitted variables correlated with education and depression may bias the linear regression coefficients and exogenous variation in education caused by differences in genetic make-up does not seem to protect against depressive symptoms.fi
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier Inc
dc.relation.ispartofseriesPreventive Medicine
dc.rightsCC BY-NC-ND 4.0
dc.subject.otherkoulutustasofi
dc.subject.otherkoulutustaustafi
dc.subject.othermasennusfi
dc.subject.othersosiaaliepidemiologiafi
dc.subject.othereducationfi
dc.subject.otherdepressionfi
dc.subject.otherMendelian randomizationfi
dc.subject.otherinstrumental variablesfi
dc.titleDoes education protect against depression? Evidence from the Young Finns Study using Mendelian randomizationfi
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-201812145127
dc.contributor.laitosKauppakorkeakoulufi
dc.contributor.laitosSchool of Business and Economicsen
dc.contributor.oppiaineBasic or discovery scholarship
dc.contributor.oppiaineTaloustiede
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.date.updated2018-12-14T10:15:13Z
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.format.pagerange134-139
dc.relation.issn0091-7435
dc.relation.numberinseries0
dc.relation.volume115
dc.type.versionacceptedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.format.contentfulltext
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.026


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