Early temperament and age at school entry predict task avoidance in elementary school
Hirvonen, R., Torppa, M., Nurmi, J.-E., Eklund, K., & Ahonen, T. (2016). Early temperament and age at school entry predict task avoidance in elementary school. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.012
Published inLearning and Individual Differences
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive form has been published by Elsevier. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
This study examined the role of temperament, prereading skills, and age at school entry in the development of Finnish children's task avoidance. Teachers rated the task-avoidant behavior of 198 participants in kindergarten and twice in Grades 2 and 3. Parents rated the children's temperament at age 3 and children's prereading skills were measured at age 5. The results showed that, on average, the level of children's task avoidance remained the same from kindergarten to Grade 2 fall, but decreased from Grade 2 fall to Grade 3 spring. A low task avoidance level was predicted by good prereading skills, high effortful control, and high negative affectivity. Low surgency predicted a decrease in task avoidance from kindergarten to Grade 2 fall, whereas high negative affectivity predicted a decrease from Grade 2 fall to Grade 3 spring. Finally, task avoidance of the oldest children in the classrooms decreased more from kindergarten to Grade 2 fall, whereas younger children's task avoidance decreased particularly from Grade 2 fall onward. ...