Protonation-induced fluorescence modulation of carbazole-based emitters
Taipale, E., Durandin, N. A., Salunke, J. K., Candeias, N. R., Ruoko, T.-P., Ward, J. S., Priimagi, A., & Rissanen, K. (2022). Protonation-induced fluorescence modulation of carbazole-based emitters. Materials Advances, 3(3), 1703-1712. https://doi.org/10.1039/d1ma00438g
Published inMaterials Advances
© 2022 the Authors
The development of purely organic fluorescence emitters is of great importance for their low cost and high performance. Responding to this demand, carbazole is a promising emitter due to its extensive freedom for functionalisation, high thermal and chemical stability, as well as low cost. Herein, the effect of protonation on the fluorescence of various pyridine-functionalised carbazole-based bipolar host materials was studied both in solution and in the solid-state. The restriction of intramolecular rotation of the molecules upon protonation of the pyridyl-moiety together with easier planarization of the protonated acceptor and the donor moieties and relocalisation of the LUMO orbital on the protonated species was found to increase the fluorescence quantum yield from 16% to 80%. Additionally, in the solid-state, the J-type packing of the molecules further facilitated the increase in the fluorescence quantum yield from 1% to 49%. In both cases, the pronounced bathochromic spectral shift was observed indicating that the gap between the emissive state and the first triplet state of the molecules was diminished upon protonation. Therefore, implementing this strategy could further boost the development of future emitters. ...
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
Publication in research information system
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Additional information about fundingAP is thankful to the Academy of Finland (SUPREL project, decision numbers 311142 & 326416) for financial support. JSW gratefully acknowledges the Finnish Cultural Foundation Central Fund (Grant number 00201148) for funding. NRC is thankful to Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia for the financial support (CEE-CINST/2018), and to CSC–IT Center for Science Ltd, Finland for the allocation of computational resources. NAD acknowledges the financial support from Academy of Finland (Grant number 316893). ...
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