Development of the Concept of Governance in China
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This doctoral dissertation is a study of development of the concept of governance in China. In the 21st century, governance has become a meaningful political discourse in the international community, while it is also a constantly changing concept. The study analyses different meanings related to the concept of governance in China and what kind of purpose it serves. It considers the concept of governance in different periods of China in a historical context of ancient Chinese governance theory where the vocabulary comes from, but concentrates mostly on socialist China. The evolution of the concept is related to the changing situations at home and abroad. Different governance ideas have been produced at different stages, while different governance characteristics and effects have been formed accordingly. In China, state governance has undergone a process of development from rule to management, and then from management to governance. The relationship among the Party leadership, government, market, and society is constantly changing, and the concept of governance also changes accordingly. The research method has been inspired by conceptual historians, especially by Quentin Skinner and Kari Palonen. The research material consists mostly of speeches and writings of Chinese leaders, supported by academic monographs, government reports, articles in various journals, doctoral dissertations both in China and abroad. A high proportion of the research material is in Chinese. The structure of the study consists of eight main chapters, including the introduction and the conclusion. From chapter three to chapter seven, this study analyses the development of ideas on governance under five Chinese supreme leaders, namely Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping. The study attempts to bring together three related political concepts in the Chinese context: democracy, rule of law, and governance. The concept of governance is a broad term that develops within the horizon of democracy. Democracy runs through the political development history of modern countries in the world, sometimes in practice, sometimes more as a goal or ideal, but it certainly coexists in different degrees with the concept of national governance. The process of China’s state governance is also a process of advancing gradually the political democratization of a socialist society. Keywords: China, governance, conceptual history, democracy, rule of law ...
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