Sleep-time physiological recovery is associated with eating habits in distressed working-age Finns with overweight : secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial
Järvelä-Reijonen, E., Järvinen, S., Karhunen, L., Föhr, T., Myllymäki, T., Sairanen, E., Lindroos, S., Peuhkuri, K., Hallikainen, M., Pihlajamäki, J., Puttonen, S., Korpela, R., Ermes, M., Lappalainen, R., Kujala, U. M., Kolehmainen, M., & Laitinen, J. (2021). Sleep-time physiological recovery is associated with eating habits in distressed working-age Finns with overweight : secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology, 16, Article 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12995-021-00310-6
Published inJournal of occupational medicine and toxicology
© The Author(s). 2021
Background Association of physiological recovery with nutrition has scarcely been studied. We investigated whether physiological recovery during sleep relates to eating habits, i.e., eating behaviour and diet quality. Methods Cross-sectional baseline analysis of psychologically distressed adults with overweight (N = 252) participating in a lifestyle intervention study in three Finnish cities. Recovery measures were based on sleep-time heart rate variability (HRV) measured for 3 consecutive nights. Measures derived from HRV were 1) RMSSD (Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences) indicating the parasympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system and 2) Stress Balance (SB) indicating the temporal ratio of recovery to stress. Eating behaviour was measured with questionnaires (Intuitive Eating Scale, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales, ecSatter Inventory™). Diet quality was quantified using questionnaires (Index of Diet Quality, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption) and 48-h dietary recall. Results Participants with best RMSSD reported less intuitive eating (p = 0.019) and less eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (p = 0.010) compared to those with poorest RMSSD; participants with good SB reported less unconditional permission to eat (p = 0.008), higher fibre intake (p = 0.028), higher diet quality (p = 0.001), and lower alcohol consumption (p < 0.001) compared to those with poor SB, although effect sizes were small. In subgroup analyses among participants who reported working regular daytime hours (n = 216), only the associations of SB with diet quality and alcohol consumption remained significant. Conclusions Better nocturnal recovery showed associations with better diet quality, lower alcohol consumption and possibly lower intuitive eating. In future lifestyle interventions and clinical practice, it is important to acknowledge sleep-time recovery as one possible factor linked with eating habits. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe study was supported by the SalWe Research Program for Mind and Body (Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation grant 1104/10); the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland (grant number 303430); the Business Finland (Vital Selfie project, grant number 2726/31/2014); the Academy of Finland (MARIA project, grant number 286028); the PhD student position (E.J-R.) in the Doctoral Programme in Nutrition of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland; and Finnish Cultural Foundation, North Savo Regional fund (E.J-R., S.J.). The funders had no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data; in writing the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the article for publication. ...
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