Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins
Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019). Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins. Nutrients, 11 (11), 2561. DOI: 10.3390/nu11112561
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We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (β = −0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p < 0.001), waist circumference (β = −0.34, p < 0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p < 0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe research work has been supported by the Academy of Finland (JK, grant numbers 141054 and 264146), the Juho Vainio Foundation (GM and LHB), and the Finnish Cultural Foundation (GM, grant number 00180705). LHB would kindly like to acknowledge the funding from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): M 2449. The FinnTwin16 wave 5 data collection and FITFATTWIN study was supported by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture (UMK), META_PREDICT (within the European Union Framework Programme, HEALTH-F2-277936 to UMK), and the Juho Vainio Foundation (UMK and MR). JK has been supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 265240, 263278, 308248 and 312073). KHP has been supported by the Academy of Finland (grant numbers: 272376, 314383, 266286), Finnish Medical Foundation, Gyllenberg Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, University of Helsinki, Government Research Funds, Helsinki University Hospital, Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation and Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research. ...
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