Music Therapy for Depression Enhanced With Listening Homework and Slow Paced Breathing : A Randomised Controlled Trial
Erkkilä, J., Brabant, O., Hartmann, M., Mavrolampados, A., Ala-Ruona, E., Snape, N., Saarikallio, S., & Gold, C. (2021). Music Therapy for Depression Enhanced With Listening Homework and Slow Paced Breathing : A Randomised Controlled Trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 613821. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.613821
Published inFrontiers in Psychology
DisciplineMusic, Mind and TechnologyMusiikkikasvatusMusiikkiterapiaMusic, Mind and TechnologyMusic EducationMusic Therapy
© 2021 Erkkilä, Brabant, Hartmann, Mavrolampados, Ala-Ruona, Snape, Saarikallio and Gold.
Introduction: There is evidence from earlier trials for the efficacy of music therapy in the treatment of depression among working-age people. Starting therapy sessions with relaxation and revisiting therapeutic themes outside therapy have been deemed promising for outcome enhancement. However, previous music therapy trials have not investigated this issue. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of two enhancers, resonance frequency breathing (RFB) and listening homework (LH), when combined with an established music therapy model (trial registration number ISRCTN11618310). Methods: In a 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial, working-age individuals with depression were allocated into groups based on four conditions derived from either the presence or absence of two enhancers (RFB and LH). All received music therapy over 6 weeks. Outcomes were observed at 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome was the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score. Results: There was a significant overall effect of treatment for the primary outcome favouring the breathing group (d = 0.50, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.93, p = 0.02). The effect was larger after adjustment for potential confounders (d = 0.62, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.08, p = 0.009). Treatment effects for secondary outcomes, including anxiety (anxiety scale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and quality of life (RAND-36), were also significant, favouring the breathing group. The homework enhancer did not reach significant treatment effects. Conclusion: We found that the addition of RFB to a music therapy intervention resulted in enhanced therapeutic outcome for clients with depression. ...
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Postdoctoral Researcher, AoF; Academy Project, AoF
Additional information about fundingThis work was supported by funding from the Academy of Finland (project numbers 298678, 314651, and 316912).
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