ICO Crowdfunding : Incentives, Pricing Strategy, Token Strategy and Crowd Involvement
Laatikainen, Gabriella; Semenov, Alexander; Zhang, Yixin; Abrahamsson, Pekka (2020). ICO Crowdfunding : Incentives, Pricing Strategy, Token Strategy and Crowd Involvement. In Paasivaara, Maria; Kruchten, Philippe (Eds.) XP 2020 Workshops : Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming. 21st International Conference on Agile Software Development, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 396. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 32-40. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-58858-8_4
Published inLecture Notes in Business Information Processing
© The Author(s) 2020
Blockchain technologies provide means to develop services that are secure, transparent and efficient by nature. Unsurprisingly, the emerging business opportunities has gained a lot of interest that is realized in form of successful Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) that are able to raise billions of USD through crowdfunding campaign. In this exploratory research we study 91 ICOs through content analysis in order to investigate the special characteristics of ICO crowdfunding as business models towards the possible investors. We found that ICOs can be described through (1) the model for providing incentives for investment, (2) the pricing strategy, (3) the token strategy and (4) the activities for crowd involvement in value co-creation.