Occurrence of antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in source-separated urine, groundwater, surface water and wastewater in the peri-urban area of Chunga in Lusaka, Zambia
Ngumba, E., Gachanja, A., Nyirenda, J., Maldonado, J., & Tuhkanen, T. (2020). Occurrence of antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs in source-separated urine, groundwater, surface water and wastewater in the peri-urban area of Chunga in Lusaka, Zambia. Water SA, 46(2), Article 278-284. https://doi.org/10.17159/wsa/2020.v46.i2.8243
Published inWater SA
© 2020 the Authors
Recently, there has been an increased interest in bridging the knowledge gap in the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in African urban water cycles. In this study, the occurrence of 7 antibiotics and 3 antiretrovirals in source-separated urine, groundwater, wastewater and surface water of the peri-urban area of Chunga in Lusaka, Zambia, was studied. In groundwater, the pharmaceuticals were only sporadically present with 4 antibiotics and 1 antiretroviral detected. The concentration of the antibiotics ranged from below limit of quantification (
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Additional information about fundingThis work was financially supported by the University of Jyväskylä Doctoral Program in Biological and Environmental Science and Maa- ja vesitekniikan tuki ry and University of Jyväskylä bilateral student exchange travel scholarship. The authors are also thankful to the scientists from the University of Zambia, Department of Chemistry, for the support during sample preparation as well as to Mrs Patricia Sakala from the International Link Office for kindly providing support and contacts. We would also like to thank the personnel of the non-governmental organizations Network for Environmental Concerns and Solutions, Obed Kawanga, Lydia Chibambo and Noah Chongo, as well as Sari Huuhtanen from the Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland for providing their vital support to the sampling period of this study, and José Maldonado for assistance during sample collection. ...
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