Occurrence of antibiotics and risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in selected Kenyan wastewaters, surface waters and sediments
Kairigo, Pius; Ngumba, Elijah; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina; Gachanja, Anthony; Tuhkanen, Tuula (2020). Occurrence of antibiotics and risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in selected Kenyan wastewaters, surface waters and sediments. Science of the Total Environment, 720, 137580. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137580
Published inScience of the Total Environment
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© 2020 Elsevier
Active pharmaceutical ingredients, especially antibiotics, are micropollutants whose continuous flow into hydrological cycles has the potential to mediate antibiotic resistance in the environment and cause toxicity to sensitive organisms. Here, we investigated the levels of selected antibiotics in four wastewater treatment plants and the receiving water bodies. The measured environmental concentrations were compared with the proposed compound-specific predicted no-effect concentration for resistance selection values. The concentration of doxycycline, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin within the influents, effluents, surface waters and river sediments ranged between 0.2 and 49.3 μgL−1, 0.1 to 21.4 μgL−1; ˂ 0.1 and 56.6 μgL−1; and 1.8 and 47.4 μgkg−1, respectively. Compared to the effluent concentrations, the surface waters upstream and downstream one of the four studied treatment plants showed two to five times higher concentrations of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and sulfamethoxazole. The risk quotient for bacterial resistance selection in effluent and surface water ranged between ˂0.1 and 53, indicating a medium to high risk of antibiotic resistance developing within the study areas. Therefore, risk mitigation and prevention strategies are a matter of priority in the affected areas. ...