Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Insulin Resistance in Children
Haapala, E. A., Wiklund, P., Lintu, N., Tompuri, T., Väistö, J., Finni, T., Tarkka, I. M., Kemppainen, T., Barker, A. R., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., & Lakka, T. A. (2020). Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Insulin Resistance in Children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 52(5), 1144-1152. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002216
Published inMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
© 2019 American College of Sports Medicine
Purpose Few studies have investigated the independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat percentage (BF%) with insulin resistance in children. We investigated the independent and combined associations of CRF and BF% with fasting glycaemia and insulin resistance and their interactions with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time among 452 children aged 6–8 years. Methods We assessed CRF with a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test and used allometrically scaled maximal power output (Wmax) for lean body mass (LM1.13) and body mass (BM1) as measures of CRF. BF% and LM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, fasting glycaemia by fasting plasma glucose, and insulin resistance by fasting serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). PA energy expenditure (PAEE), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time were assessed by combined movement and heart rate sensor. Results Wmax/LM1.13 was not associated with glucose (β=0.065, 95% CI=-0.031 to 0.161), insulin (β=-0.079, 95% CI=-0.172 to 0.015), or HOMA-IR (β=-0.065, 95% CI=-0.161 to 0.030). Wmax/BM1 was inversely associated with insulin (β=-0.289, 95% CI=-0.377 to -0.200) and HOMA-IR (β=-0.269, 95% CI=-0.359 to -0.180). BF% was directly associated with insulin (β=0.409, 95% CI=0.325 to 0.494) and HOMA-IR (β=0.390, 95% CI=0.304 to 0.475). Higher Wmax/BM1, but not Wmax/LM1.13, was associated with lower insulin and HOMA-IR in children with higher BF%. Children with higher BF% and who had lower levels of MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Children with higher BF% together with less MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. CRF appropriately controlled for body size and composition using LM was not related to insulin resistance among children. ...
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
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Additional information about fundingThe PANIC Study has financially been supported by Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health of Finland, Research Committee of the Kuopio University Hospital Catchment Area (State Research Funding), Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Foundation for Paediatric Research, Diabetes Research Foundation in Finland, Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Juho Vainio Foundation, Paavo Nurmi Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, and the city of Kuopio. Moreover, the PhD students and postdoctoral researchers of The PANIC Study have been supported by Program for Clinical Research and Program for Health Sciences of Doctoral School of University of Eastern Finland, Finnish Doctoral Programs in Public Health, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, Paulo Foundation, Jalmari and Rauha Ahokas Foundation, Aarne and Aili Turunen Foundation, Finnish Medical Foundation, Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation, Kuopio Naturalists' Society, Olvi Foundation, and the city of Kuopio. SB was supported by UK Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/3) and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre Cambridge [IS-BRC-1215-20014]. The sponsors had no role in designing the study, the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data, the writing of the report, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. ...
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