Quantitative Microscopy Reveals Stepwise Alteration of Chromatin Structure during Herpesvirus Infection
Aho, Vesa; Mäntylä, Elina; Ekman, Axel; Hakanen, Satu; Mattola, Salla; Chen, Jian-Hua; Weinhardt, Venera; Ruokolainen, Visa; Sodeik, Beate; Larabell, Carolyn; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija (2019). Quantitative Microscopy Reveals Stepwise Alteration of Chromatin Structure during Herpesvirus Infection. Viruses, 11 (10), 935. DOI: 10.3390/v11100935
© Authors, 2019
During lytic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the expansion of the viral replication compartments leads to an enrichment of the host chromatin in the peripheral nucleoplasm. We have shown previously that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of channels through the compacted peripheral chromatin. Here, we used three-dimensional confocal and expansion microscopy, soft X-ray tomography, electron microscopy, and random walk simulations to analyze the kinetics of host chromatin redistribution and capsid localization relative to their egress site at the nuclear envelope. Our data demonstrated a gradual increase in chromatin marginalization, and the kinetics of chromatin smoothening around the viral replication compartments correlated with their expansion. We also observed a gradual transfer of capsids to the nuclear envelope. Later in the infection, random walk modeling indicated a gradually faster transport of capsids to the nuclear envelope that correlated with an increase in the interchromatin channels in the nuclear periphery. Our study reveals a stepwise and time-dependent mechanism of herpesvirus nuclear egress, in which progeny viral capsids approach the egress sites at the nuclear envelope via interchromatin spaces. ...