The potential of temporal analysis : Combining log data and lag sequential analysis to investigate temporal differences between scaffolded and non-scaffolded group inquiry-based learning processes
Lämsä, Joni; Hämäläinen, Raija; Koskinen, Pekka; Viiri, Jouni; Mannonen, Joonas (2020). The potential of temporal analysis : Combining log data and lag sequential analysis to investigate temporal differences between scaffolded and non-scaffolded group inquiry-based learning processes. Computers and Education, 143, 103674. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103674
Published inComputers and Education
Embargoed until: 2023-02-01Request copy from author
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd.
This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about analysing the temporal aspects of learning processes in the educational technology research field. Our main aim was to advance methods for analysing temporal aspects of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) processes by introducing the temporal lag sequential analysis (TLSA) technique and by combining TLSA with temporal log data analysis (TLDA). Our secondary aim was to illustrate the potential of these two analysis techniques to reveal the differences between the face-to-face technology-enhanced collaborative inquiry-based learning (CIBL) processes of three different conditions (non-scaffolded, writing scaffolded and script scaffolded groups). The study involved undergraduate university students (N = 231) in natural sciences. The TLDA was based on timestamps and groups' inputs into a TEL environment, and it focused on the groups' temporal ways of using technological resources. The TLSA was based on screen capture videos and audio recordings of the groups' CIBL processes, and it focused on the inquiry-based learning (IBL) transition patterns (i.e. the transitions between the different IBL phases) discovered by lag sequential analysis and demonstrated by how the IBL transition patterns temporarily emerged. The TLDA findings demonstrated temporal differences regarding how the groups in the different conditions used the available technological resources. The TLSA findings revealed three temporarily distinct IBL transition pattern clusters whose content and temporal emergence varied depending on the condition. Parallel temporal analysis of the log data and the IBL transition patterns indicated that the use of the technological resources temporarily mediated IBL transition patterns. Specifically, we found advantages similar to those of asynchronous online discussions (think before acting) when face-to-face interaction was enhanced with the writing scaffold. The article concludes with a general discussion of the necessity and potential of temporal analysis. ...