Complementary approaches for assessing protein sources in fish feed
Fluctuating fishmeal (FM) prices and declining marine fish stocks have led to the current trend of replacing dietary FM with plant proteins (PP) in fish feed. PPs offer challenges both with respect to nutritional quality and the occurrence of antinutrients. The assessment of utilisation efficiency of PPs for growth is important for the sustainable production of fish feed. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the applicability of stable isotope analysis in combination with respirometry in the evaluation of dietary PPs for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The dietary PPs were corn gluten meal (CGM), rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC) and potato protein (PoP). Complete replacement of FM with CGM was feasible without adversely affecting the metabolic oxygen consumption (MO2) of the trout. However, the growth of fish and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of CGM and/or RPC decreased with their increasing dietary proportion through which the nutritional quality of the diets was compromised. The growth reduction may be caused by lower nutritional quality and antinutrients of the PPs. ADC of CGM and/or RPC was estimated from the faecal nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N). There was a strong negative correlation between diet–tissue shift (∆15N) of δ15N values and dietary protein quality, and these correlations observed in muscle, liver, mucus and faeces were similar. Carbon and nitrogen turnover in muscle and liver of fish fed with corn and potato diet were estimated using stable isotope mixing model. This thesis only suggests the potential applications of stable isotope analysis and respirometry in fish nutrition research instead of providing an exact replacement level of FM. Stable isotope analysis cannot replace conventional assessment of feed ingredients and feeds, but it will bring new insight into the field of fish nutrition research provided the preconditions for using stable isotope analysis are met. In addition, development of non-lethal approach is possible by measuring the isotope ratio of faeces and mucus. ...
- Artikkeli I: Siqin G., Laine L., Vielma J., Kiljunen M., Storebakken T. & Pirhonen J. 2018. Dietary fishmeal replacement by plant protein sources decreases growth and induces a shift in δ15N in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Manuscript.
- Artikkeli II: Siqin G., Laine L., Kiljunen M., Vielma J. & Pirhonen J. 2018. Estimation of apparent digestibility coefficient of plant proteins with nitrogen stable isotope ratio in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Manuscript.
- Artikkeli III: Siqin G., Kiljunen M., Vielma J., Fernandes R. & Pirhonen J. 2018. Bayesian quantification of carbon and nitrogen turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant-based diet. Manuscript.
- Artikkeli IV: Siqin G. & Pirhonen J. 2017. Replacement of fishmeal with corn gluten meal in feeds for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) does not affect oxygen consumption during forced swimming. Aquaculture 479: 616–618 DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.07.002
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Effects of weekend starvation and the duration of daily feeding on production parameters of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Tunçelli, Gökhan; Pirhonen, Juhani (Elsevier BV, 2021)It would often be practical to starve the cultivated fishes over the weekends, e.g. to save in labour costs. We evaluated the possibility that domesticated juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) could compensate for ...
The effect of peracetic acid on microbial community, water quality, nitrification and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance in recirculating aquaculture systems Suurnäkki, Suvi; Pulkkinen, Jani T.; Lindholm-Lehto, Petra C.; Tiirola, Marja; Aalto, Sanni L. (Elsevier, 2020)Microbial biofilters control water quality and enable the overall function of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Changes in environmental conditions can affect the abundance and interactions of the diverse microbial ...
Effect of peracetic acid on levels of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, and their potential producers in a recirculating aquaculture system for rearing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Lindholm-Lehto, P. C.; Suurnäkki, Suvi; Pulkkinen, Jani; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja; Vielma, J. (Elsevier BV, 2019)In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)s, off-flavors and odors, mainly caused by geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), can accumulate in the flesh of fish from RAS water, reducing the profitability of production. ...
Replacement of fishmeal with corn gluten meal in feeds for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) does not affect oxygen consumption during forced swimming Siqingerile, Siqingerile; Pirhonen, Juhani (Elsevier, 2017)We compared oxygen consumption (MO2, mg/kg/h) of c. 80 g rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in an intermittent-flow swim respirometer at 15 °C. Before the tests the fish were grown in flow through tanks (15 °C) with either ...
Effect of Feed Protein : Lipid Ratio on Growth Parameters of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus after Fish Meal Substitution in the Diet with Bambaranut (Voandzeia subterranea) Meal and Soybean (Glycine max) Meal Enyidi, Uchechukwu; Pirhonen, Juhani; Kettunen, Juhani; Vielma, Jouni (MDPI, 2017)Fishmeal (FM) was substituted with soybean meal (Glycine max) (SBM) and bambaranut meal (Voandzeia subterranea) (BNM) in 10 experimental African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, diets. Feed formulation was designed using ...