Photoinduced lethal and sublethal toxicity of retene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derived from resin acid, to coregonid larvae
Vehniäinen, E.-R., Häkkinen, J., & Oikari, A. (2003). Photoinduced lethal and sublethal toxicity of retene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derived from resin acid, to coregonid larvae. Environmental Toxicity & Chemistry, 22 (12), 2995-3000. doi:10.1897/02-569
Published inEnvironmental Toxicity & Chemistry
DisciplineYmpäristötiede ja -teknologia
© 2003 SETAC. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive version has been published by Wiley with SETAC.
A comparative investigation on the acute phototoxicity of retene to vendace (Coregonus albula) and whitefish (C. lavaretus), both having pelagial larvae in spring, was conducted. To test the concept of early warning of sublethal biomarkers in relation to lethality to posthatch stages, we examined the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) and retene on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by exposing the animals to elevated levels of these factors for 48 and 72 h, respectively. Whereas UV-B and retene on their own were not lethal, simultaneous retene and UV-B exposure caused very high mortality to both species. The median lethal concentration (LC50; i.e., the concentration at which half of the larvae died) of retene as a precursor was 41 μg/L for vendace and 15 to 16 μg/L, depending on the UV-B dose, for whitefish. Retene evoked substantial induction of CYP1A in larvae of both species, and UV-B induced CYP1A in whitefish. In vendace, no effect on HSP70 levels by any factor was observed. In whitefish, however, UV-B radiation and water retene alone upregulated HSP70, but no additive response was detected. The CYP1A is a biomarker of exposure to retene in both species. The HSP70 is an early warning signal of UV-B exposure in whitefish. As a species, vendace appears to be more resistant than whitefish to the phototoxicity of retene, as indicated by the higher tolerance. ...