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dc.contributor.authorOrtega, Francisco B.
dc.contributor.authorLeskošek, Bojan
dc.contributor.authorBlagus, Rok
dc.contributor.authorGil-Cosano, José J.
dc.contributor.authorMäestu, Jarek
dc.contributor.authorTomkinson, Grant R.
dc.contributor.authorRuiz, Jonatan R.
dc.contributor.authorMäestu, Evelin
dc.contributor.authorStarc, Gregor
dc.contributor.authorMilanovic, Ivana
dc.contributor.authorTammelin, Tuija H.
dc.contributor.authorSorić, Maroje
dc.contributor.authorScheuer, Claude
dc.contributor.authorCarraro, Attilio
dc.contributor.authorKaj, Mónika
dc.contributor.authorCsányi, Tamás
dc.contributor.authorSardinha, Luis B.
dc.contributor.authorLenoir, Matthieu
dc.contributor.authorEmeljanovas, Arunas
dc.contributor.authorMieziene, Brigita
dc.contributor.authorSidossis, Labros S.
dc.contributor.authorPihu, Maret
dc.contributor.authorLovecchio, Nicola
dc.contributor.authorKonstabel, Kenn
dc.contributor.authorTambalis, Konstantinos D.
dc.contributor.authorŠtefan, Lovro
dc.contributor.authorDrenowatz, Clemens
dc.contributor.authorRubín, Lukáš
dc.contributor.authorGontarev, Seryozha
dc.contributor.authorCastro-Piñero, José
dc.contributor.authorVanhelst, Jérémy
dc.contributor.authorO’Keeffe, Brendan
dc.contributor.authorVeiga, Oscar L.
dc.contributor.authorGisladottir, Thordis
dc.contributor.authorSandercock, Gavin
dc.contributor.authorMisigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
dc.contributor.authorNiessner, Claudia
dc.contributor.authorRiso, Eva-Maria
dc.contributor.authorPopovic, Stevo
dc.contributor.authorKuu, Saima
dc.contributor.authorChinapaw, Mai
dc.contributor.authorClavel, Iván
dc.contributor.authorLabayen, Idoia
dc.contributor.authorDobosz, Janusz
dc.contributor.authorColella, Dario
dc.contributor.authorKriemler, Susi
dc.contributor.authorSalaj, Sanja
dc.contributor.authorNoriega, Maria Jose
dc.contributor.authorBös, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorSánchez-López, Mairena
dc.contributor.authorLakka, Timo A.
dc.contributor.authorTabacchi, Garden
dc.contributor.authorNovak, Dario
dc.contributor.authorAhrens, Wolfgang
dc.contributor.authorWedderkopp, Niels
dc.contributor.authorJurak, Gregor
dc.contributor.authorthe FitBack consortium
dc.contributor.authorHELENA consortium
dc.contributor.authorIDEFICS consortium
dc.identifier.citationOrtega, Francisco B., Leskošek, Bojan, Blagus, Rok, Gil-Cosano, José J., Mäestu, Jarek, Tomkinson, Grant R., Ruiz, Jonatan R., Mäestu, Evelin, Starc, Gregor, Milanovic, Ivana, Tammelin, Tuija H., Sorić, Maroje, Scheuer, Claude, Carraro, Attilio, Kaj, Mónika, Csányi, Tamás, Sardinha, Luis B., Lenoir, Matthieu, Emeljanovas, Arunas, Mieziene, Brigita, Sidossis, Labros S., Pihu, Maret, Lovecchio, Nicola, Konstabel, Kenn, Tambalis, Konstantinos D., Štefan, Lovro, Drenowatz, Clemens, Rubín, Lukáš, Gontarev, Seryozha, Castro-Piñero, José, Vanhelst, Jérémy, O’Keeffe, Brendan, Veiga, Oscar L., Gisladottir, Thordis, Sandercock, Gavin, Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta, Niessner, Claudia, Riso, Eva-Maria, Popovic, Stevo, Kuu, Saima, Chinapaw, Mai, Clavel, Iván, Labayen, Idoia, Dobosz, Janusz, Colella, Dario, Kriemler, Susi, Salaj, Sanja, Noriega, Maria Jose, Bös, Klaus, Sánchez-López, Mairena, Lakka, Timo A., Tabacchi, Garden, Novak, Dario, Ahrens, Wolfgang, Wedderkopp, Niels, Jurak, Gregor, the FitBack consortium, HELENA consortium, IDEFICS consortium. (2023). European fitness landscape for children and adolescents : updated reference values, fitness maps and country rankings based on nearly 8 million test results from 34 countries gathered by the FitBack network. <i>British Journal of Sports Medicine</i>, <i>57</i>(5), 299-310. <a href="" target="_blank"></a>
dc.description.abstractObjectives (1) To develop reference values for health-related fitness in European children and adolescents aged 6–18 years that are the foundation for the web-based, open-access and multilanguage fitness platform (FitBack); (2) to provide comparisons across European countries. Methods This study builds on a previous large fitness reference study in European youth by (1) widening the age demographic, (2) identifying the most recent and representative country-level data and (3) including national data from existing fitness surveillance and monitoring systems. We used the Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness at population level (ALPHA) test battery as it comprises tests with the highest test–retest reliability, criterion/construct validity and health-related predictive validity: the 20 m shuttle run (cardiorespiratory fitness); handgrip strength and standing long jump (muscular strength); and body height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference (anthropometry). Percentile values were obtained using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape method. Results A total of 7 966 693 test results from 34 countries (106 datasets) were used to develop sex-specific and age-specific percentile values. In addition, country-level rankings based on mean percentiles are provided for each fitness test, as well as an overall fitness ranking. Finally, an interactive fitness platform, including individual and group reporting and European fitness maps, is provided and freely available online ( Conclusion This study discusses the major implications of fitness assessment in youth from health, educational and sport perspectives, and how the FitBack reference values and interactive web-based platform contribute to it. Fitness testing can be conducted in school and/or sport settings, and the interpreted results be integrated in the healthcare systems across Europe.en
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
dc.rightsCC BY-NC 4.0
dc.titleEuropean fitness landscape for children and adolescents : updated reference values, fitness maps and country rankings based on nearly 8 million test results from 34 countries gathered by the FitBack network
dc.contributor.laitosLiikuntatieteellinen tiedekuntafi
dc.contributor.laitosFaculty of Sport and Health Sciencesen
dc.rights.copyright© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ
dc.subject.ysolapset (ikäryhmät)
dc.subject.ysofyysinen kunto
dc.subject.ysokansainvälinen vertailu
jyx.fundinginformationThis research was co-funded by the Erasmus+ Sport Programme of the European Union within the project FitBack No 613010-EPP-1-2019-1-SI-SPO-SCP and Slovenian Research Agency within the Research programme Bio-psycho-social context of kinesiology (number P5-0142). FBO, JJG-C, JRR and IL are supported by the University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigación, Visiting Scholar grants and Excellence actions: Units of Excellence; Unit of Excellence on Exercise, Nutrition and Health and by the Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades and European Regional Development Fund (SOMM17/6107/UGR) and CIBERobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition.

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