Menopausal symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged women : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 4-year follow-up
Hyvärinen, M., Karvanen, J., Juppi, H.-K., Karppinen, J. E., Tammelin, T. H., Kovanen, V., Aukee, P., Sipilä, S., Rantalainen, T., & Laakkonen, E. K. (2023). Menopausal symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged women : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 4-year follow-up. Maturitas, 174, 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2023.05.004
DisciplineGerontologian tutkimuskeskusFyysinen aktiivisuus eliniän aikanaHyvinvoinnin tutkimuksen yhteisöGerontologia ja kansanterveysLiikuntalääketiedeTilastotiedeBiomekaniikkaGerontology Research CenterPhysical activity through life spanSchool of WellbeingGerontology and Public HealthSports and Exercise MedicineStatisticsBiomechanics
© 2023 the Authors
Objective To study associations of menopausal symptoms with cardiometabolic risk factors. Study design A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of a representative population sample of 1393 women aged 47–55 years with a sub-sample of 298 followed for four years. The numbers of vasomotor, psychological, somatic or pain, and urogenital menopausal symptoms were ascertained at baseline through self-report. Their associations with cardiometabolic risk factors were studied using linear regression and linear mixed-effect models. Models were adjusted for age, menopausal status, body mass index, the use of hormonal preparations, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures Cardiometabolic risk factors included total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, total and android fat mass, and physical activity. Results All cholesterol and fat mass measures had modest positive associations with menopausal symptoms. The number of vasomotor symptoms, in particular, was associated with total cholesterol (B = 0.13 mmol/l, 95 % CI [0.07, 0.20]; 0.15 mmol/l [0.02, 0.28]) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.08 mmol/l [0.03, 0.14]; 0.12 mmol/l [0.01, 0.09]) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. However, these associations disappeared after adjusting for confounders. The number of symptoms was not associated with blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and physical activity. Menopausal symptoms at baseline did not predict the changes in the risk factors during the follow-up. Conclusions Menopausal symptoms may not be independently associated with cardiometabolic risk, and they do not seem to predict the changes in risk factors during the menopausal transition. ...
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Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Research costs of Academy Research Fellow, AoF; Academy Research Fellow, AoF; Academy Project, AoF
Additional information about fundingThis work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant numbers 275323 to VK and 309504, 314181 and 335249 to EKL). TR was an Academy Research Fellow during the preparation of this manuscript (Academy of Finland grant numbers 321336 and 328818).
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