Bidirectional associations between cognitive functions and walking performance among middle-aged women
Tirkkonen, A., Kekäläinen, T., Aukee, P., Kujala, U. M., Laakkonen, E. K., Kokko, K., & Sipilä, S. (2022). Bidirectional associations between cognitive functions and walking performance among middle-aged women. Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 29(2), 200-209. https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0000000000001896
DisciplineGerontologia ja kansanterveysLiikuntalääketiedeGerontology and Public HealthSports and Exercise Medicine
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The North American Menopause Society.
Objective: This study investigated whether (1) cognitive functions change after the transition from the perimenopausal to the postmenopausal stage, (2) cognitive functions and walking are associated in middle-aged women, and (3) cognitive functions assessed in perimenopause are associated with walking after reaching the postmenopause or vice versa. Methods: In total, 342 women, categorized as early (n = 158) or late perimenopausal (n = 184), were included in the study and followed up until postmenopausal. Psychomotor speed, executive functions related to set-shifting and updating, working memory, and visual memory were assessed. Walking was assessed with walking speed, walking distance, and dual-task cost in walking speed. Data was analyzed using the paired-samples t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, multiple linear regression analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results: We found small but significant improvements in psychomotor speed (P = 0.01) and working memory (P < 0.001) among early perimenopausal and in psychomotor speed (P = 0.001), set-shifting (P = 0.02), visual memory (P = 0.002), and working memory (P < 0.001) among late perimenopausal women after the transition from peri- to postmenopause. Walking speed (β = 0.264, P = 0.001) and dual-task cost (β = 0.160, P = 0.03) were associated with updating, and walking distance was associated with updating and set-shifting (β = 0.198, P = 0.02, β=−0.178 P = 0.04 respectively) among the late perimenopausal women. We found no longitudinal associations between cognitive functions and walking. Conclusion: Cognitive performance remained unchanged or improved after reaching postmenopause. Cognitive functions and walking were associated during the late perimenopause, but the association depended on the cognitive process and nature of the physical task. Cognitive performance was not associated with walking after reaching postmenopause or vice versa. ...
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
Dataset(s) related to the publicationLaakkonen, Eija; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna. (2022). Data from Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study. University of Jyväskylä. https://doi.org/10.17011/jyx/dataset/83491. https://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-202210074820
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- Liikuntatieteiden tiedekunta 
Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Academy Project, AoF; Academy Research Fellow, AoF
Additional information about fundingThis study was supported by funding from the Academy of Finland (Grant no: 296843 to S.S. and 323541 to K.K.) and the Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland (OKM/49/626/2017, OKM/72/626/2018, OKM/92/626/2019 to K.K.). E.K.L. (Academy of Finland grant no: 309504) was an Academy Research Fellow during the preparation of the manuscript. The ERMA data collection was supported by funding from the Academy of Finland (Grant no. 275323, awarded to E.K.L.). ...
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