Development of Numeracy and Literacy Skills in Early Childhood : A Longitudinal Study on the Roles of Home Environment and Familial Risk for Reading and Math Difficulties
Salminen, J., Khanolainen, D., Koponen, T., Torppa, M., & Lerkkanen, M.-K. (2021). Development of Numeracy and Literacy Skills in Early Childhood : A Longitudinal Study on the Roles of Home Environment and Familial Risk for Reading and Math Difficulties. Frontiers in Education, 6, Article 725337. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.725337
Published inFrontiers in Education
DisciplineResurssiviisausyhteisöVarhaiskasvatusKasvatuspsykologiaSchool of Resource WisdomEarly Childhood EducationKasvatuspsykologia
© 2021 the Authors
This study examines the direct and indirect effects of home numeracy and literacy environment, and parental factors (parental reading and math difficulties, and parental education) on the development of several early numeracy and literacy skills. The 265 participating Finnish children were assessed four times between ages 2.5 and 6.5. Children’s skills in counting objects, number production, number sequence knowledge, number symbol knowledge, number naming, vocabulary, print knowledge, and letter knowledge were assessed individually. Parents (N = 202) reported on their education level, learning difficulties in math and reading (familial risk, FR), and home learning environment separately for numeracy (HNE) and literacy (HLE) while their children were 2.5 years old and again while they were 5.5 years old. The results revealed both within-domain and cross-domain associations. Parents’ mathematical difficulties (MD) and reading difficulties (RD) and home numeracy environment predicted children’s numeracy and literacy skill development within and across domains. An evocative effect was found as well; children’s skills in counting, number sequence knowledge, number symbol identification, and letter knowledge negatively predicted later home numeracy and literacy activities. There were no significant indirect effects from parents’ RD, MD, or educational level on children’s skills via HLE or HNE. Our study highlights that parental RD and MD, parental education, and the home learning environment form a complex pattern of associations with children’s numeracy and literacy skills starting already in toddlerhood. ...
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
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Related funder(s)European Commission; Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Postdoctoral Researcher, AoF
The content of the publication reflects only the author’s view. The funder is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Additional information about fundingJS was supported by a grant from the Academy of Finland # 308070. DK has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme Neo-PRISM-C under the Marie Skłodowska Curie grant agreement # 813546. Also, MT, TK and JS have received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 101002966). ...
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