Black box of phage–bacterium interactions : exploring alternative phage infection strategies
Mäntynen, S., Laanto, E., Oksanen, H. M., Poranen, M. M., & Díaz-Muñoz, S. L. (2021). Black box of phage–bacterium interactions : exploring alternative phage infection strategies. Open Biology, 11(9), Article 210188. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsob.210188
Published inOpen Biology
© 2021 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society.
The canonical lytic–lysogenic binary has been challenged in recent years, as more evidence has emerged on alternative bacteriophage infection strategies. These infection modes are little studied, and yet they appear to be more abundant and ubiquitous in nature than previously recognized, and can play a significant role in the ecology and evolution of their bacterial hosts. In this review, we discuss the extent, causes and consequences of alternative phage lifestyles, and clarify conceptual and terminological confusion to facilitate research progress. We propose distinct definitions for the terms ‘pseudolysogeny’ and ‘productive or non-productive chronic infection’, and distinguish them from the carrier state life cycle, which describes a population-level phenomenon. Our review also finds that phages may change their infection modes in response to environmental conditions or the physiological state of the host cell. We outline known molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative phage–host interactions, including specific genetic pathways and their considerable biotechnological potential. Moreover, we discuss potential implications of the alternative phage lifestyles for microbial biology and ecosystem functioning, as well as applied topics such as phage therapy. ...
PublisherThe Royal Society Publishing
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Additional information about fundingThis work was supported by the Academy of Finland Postdoctoral Researcher funding for S.M. (grant no. 323426) and for E.L. (grant no. 321985). M.M.P. was funded via Academy of Finland (grant no. 331627), Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation (grant no. 170046) and Sigrid Jusélius Foundation. H.M.O. was supported by the University of Helsinki and Academy of Finland funding for FINStruct and Instruct Centre FI, part of Biocenter Finland and Instruct-ERIC. ...
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