Näytä suppeat kuvailutiedot

dc.contributor.authorWinters, Anne E.
dc.contributor.authorLommi, Jenna
dc.contributor.authorKirvesoja, Jimi
dc.contributor.authorNokelainen, Ossi
dc.contributor.authorMappes, Johanna
dc.date.accessioned2021-08-18T06:16:52Z
dc.date.available2021-08-18T06:16:52Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationWinters, A. E., Lommi, J., Kirvesoja, J., Nokelainen, O., & Mappes, J. (2021). Multimodal Aposematic Defenses Through the Predation Sequence. <i>Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution</i>, <i>9</i>, Article 657740. <a href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2021.657740" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2021.657740</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_99330219
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77401
dc.description.abstractAposematic organisms warn predators of their unprofitability using a combination of defenses, including visual warning signals, startling sounds, noxious odors, or aversive tastes. Using multiple lines of defense can help prey avoid predators by stimulating multiple senses and/or by acting at different stages of predation. We tested the efficacy of three lines of defense (color, smell, taste) during the predation sequence of aposematic wood tiger moths (Arctia plantaginis) using blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) predators. Moths with two hindwing phenotypes (genotypes: WW/Wy = white, yy = yellow) were manipulated to have defense fluid with aversive smell (methoxypyrazines), body tissues with aversive taste (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) or both. In early predation stages, moth color and smell had additive effects on bird approach latency and dropping the prey, with the strongest effect for moths of the white morph with defense fluids. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration was detrimental in early attack stages, suggesting a trade-off between pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration and investment in other defenses. In addition, pyrrolizidine alkaloid taste alone did not deter bird predators. Birds could only effectively discriminate toxic moths from non-toxic moths when neck fluids containing methoxypyrazines were present, at which point they abandoned attack at the consumption stage. As a result, moths of the white morph with an aversive methoxypyrazine smell and moths in the treatment with both chemical defenses had the greatest chance of survival. We suggest that methoxypyrazines act as context setting signals for warning colors and as attention alerting or “go-slow” signals for distasteful toxins, thereby mediating the relationship between warning signal and toxicity. Furthermore, we found that moths that were heterozygous for hindwing coloration had more effective defense fluids compared to other genotypes in terms of delaying approach and reducing the latency to drop the moth, suggesting a genetic link between coloration and defense that could help to explain the color polymorphism. Conclusively, these results indicate that color, smell, and taste constitute a multimodal warning signal that impedes predator attack and improves prey survival. This work highlights the importance of understanding the separate roles of color, smell and taste through the predation sequence and also within-species variation in chemical defenses.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SA
dc.relation.ispartofseriesFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.subject.otheraposematism
dc.subject.otherArctia plantaginis
dc.subject.otherCyanistes caeruleus
dc.subject.otherdefense mechanisms
dc.subject.othermultimodal signaling
dc.subject.otherpredator-prey interactions
dc.subject.otherchemical defense
dc.subject.otherwarning signals
dc.titleMultimodal Aposematic Defenses Through the Predation Sequence
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202108184564
dc.contributor.laitosBio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosDepartment of Biological and Environmental Scienceen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn2296-701X
dc.relation.volume9
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2021 the Authors
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.relation.grantnumber320438
dc.subject.ysosinitiainen
dc.subject.ysotäpläsiilikäs
dc.subject.ysovaroitusväri
dc.subject.ysosaalistus
dc.subject.ysopuolustusmekanismit (biologia)
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p12446
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p27473
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p27907
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p946
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p6078
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.3389/fevo.2021.657740
dc.relation.funderSuomen Akatemiafi
dc.relation.funderAcademy of Finlanden
jyx.fundingprogramAkatemiaprofessorin tutkimuskulut, SAfi
jyx.fundingprogramResearch costs of Academy Professor, AoFen
jyx.fundinginformationThis work was supported by the Academy of Finland to JM (#320438) and the Grant (#21000038821) to ON and by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant agreement (#840944) to AW.


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