The Association between Loneliness, Mental Well-Being, and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in Four Nordic Countries
Lyyra, N., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Eriksson, C., Madsen, K. R., Tolvanen, A., Löfstedt, P., & Välimaa, R. (2021). The Association between Loneliness, Mental Well-Being, and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in Four Nordic Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), Article 7405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147405
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Positive mental health is central to adolescent well-being. The present study examines the prevalence of loneliness and positive mental health indicators (mental well-being and self-esteem) in four Nordic countries and associations between loneliness, mental well-being, and high self-esteem. This study is based on data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study which was conducted in 2018 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden. Participants were 5883 15-year-old boys and girls. To examine the associations between loneliness, mental well-being, and self-esteem, structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied. In the comparison of Nordic countries, the prevalence of loneliness was highest among Finnish and Icelandic adolescents. High mental well-being and high self-esteem were most prevalent in Denmark and Sweden. In general, boys scored higher on positive mental health indicators and girls on loneliness. Loneliness was also a strong indicator of low mental well-being and low self-esteem in all Nordic countries. Loneliness is not only associated with mental health problems such as anxiety and depression, but it is also a risk factor for adolescents’ positive mental health. Positive mental health is important for healthy maturation and there is a need to develop initiatives to reduce adolescent loneliness and so support positive development. ...
Pohjoismaat loneliness positive mental health mental well-being self-esteem adolescents Nordic countries public health henkinen hyvinvointi positiivinen psykologia mielenterveyshäiriöt murrosikä persoonallisuuden kehitys hyvinvointi itsetuntemus yksinäisyys itsetunto ihmissuhteet nuoret sosiaaliset suhteet
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Related funder(s)Stockholm University
Additional information about fundingThis research was conducted within the research project “Mental health of school-aged children in the Nordic Countries”, funded by the Nordic Council of Minister, and the project “Positive mental health among adolescents in the Nordic countries”, funded by the Public Health Agency of Sweden, grant number 0493-2020-2.3.2.
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