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dc.contributor.authorSalmikangas, Sami
dc.contributor.authorLaiho, Jutta E.
dc.contributor.authorKalander, Kerttu
dc.contributor.authorLaajala, Mira
dc.contributor.authorHonkimaa, Anni
dc.contributor.authorShanina, Iryna
dc.contributor.authorOikarinen, Sami
dc.contributor.authorHorwitz, Marc S.
dc.contributor.authorHyöty, Heikki
dc.contributor.authorMarjomäki, Varpu
dc.date.accessioned2020-12-18T10:28:03Z
dc.date.available2020-12-18T10:28:03Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.citationSalmikangas, S., Laiho, J. E., Kalander, K., Laajala, M., Honkimaa, A., Shanina, I., Oikarinen, S., Horwitz, M. S., Hyöty, H., & Marjomäki, V. (2020). Detection of Viral −RNA and +RNA Strands in Enterovirus-Infected Cells and Tissues. <i>Microorganisms</i>, <i>8</i>(12), Article 1928. <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121928" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121928</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_47456346
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/73337
dc.description.abstractThe current methods to study the distribution and dynamics of viral RNA molecules inside infected cells are not ideal, as electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry can only detect mature virions, and quantitative real-time PCR does not reveal localized distribution of RNAs. We demonstrated here the branched DNA in situ hybridization (bDNA ISH) technology to study both the amount and location of the emerging −RNA and +RNA during acute and persistent enterovirus infections. According to our results, the replication of the viral RNA started 2–3 h after infection and the translation shortly after at 3–4 h post-infection. The replication hotspots with newly emerging −RNA were located quite centrally in the cell, while the +RNA production and most likely virion assembly took place in the periphery of the cell. We also discovered that the pace of replication of −RNA and +RNA strands was almost identical, and −RNA was absent during antiviral treatments. ViewRNA ISH with our custom probes also showed a good signal during acute and persistent enterovirus infections in cell and mouse models. Considering these results, along with the established bDNA FISH protocol modified by us, the effects of antiviral drugs and the emergence of enterovirus RNAs in general can be studied more effectively.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.ispartofseriesMicroorganisms
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.subject.otherantiviral drugs
dc.subject.otherbranched DNA
dc.subject.otherenterovirus
dc.subject.otherin situ hybridization
dc.subject.othernegative RNA
dc.subject.otherpositive RNA
dc.subject.otherreplication
dc.titleDetection of Viral −RNA and +RNA Strands in Enterovirus-Infected Cells and Tissues
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202012187284
dc.contributor.laitosBio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosDepartment of Biological and Environmental Scienceen
dc.contributor.oppiaineNanoscience Centerfi
dc.contributor.oppiaineSolu- ja molekyylibiologiafi
dc.contributor.oppiaineNanoscience Centeren
dc.contributor.oppiaineCell and Molecular Biologyen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn2076-2607
dc.relation.numberinseries12
dc.relation.volume8
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.subject.ysoRNA
dc.subject.ysoinfektiot
dc.subject.ysoenterovirukset
dc.subject.ysoreplikaatio
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p7689
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p7316
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p20689
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p22799
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.3390/microorganisms8121928
jyx.fundinginformationhis research was funded by Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, JDRF nPOD-Virus program, Academyof Finland (H. Hyöty, grant number 288671), Sigrid Juselius Foundation (H. Hyöty), Päivikki and Sakari SohlbergFoundation (J. Laiho), and Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation (J. Laiho).


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