Kuusivuotiaiden sopeutuminen päiväkotiin : yksilöllistetty mallioppimisohjelma päiväkotiin heikosti sopeutuvien kuusivuotiaiden ohjauksessa sekä vanhempien kasvatuskäytännön yhteydet lapsen sopeutumiseen ja minäkäsitykseen
The purpose of the study was to develop methods and practices which would facilitate the integration into day-care centres of children with special needs. The objective was to identify poorly adjusted children and to support their adjustment in order to prevent possible, more difficult disturbances. Parents' educational practices (educational style, educational objectives, educational approaches) and the connections between those practices and the adjustment and self-concept of children were also examined. The research was carried out in 1985-1986, and the subjects were six-year-old children attending day-care centres in Jyväskylä. According to the evaluations made by the kindergarten teachers, there were 95 children (N=313) participating in the research who, often or very often showed poor adjustment in the form of noisy behavior, restlessness, disobedience, difficulties in performing tasks, lack of motivation, dependence, uncertainty, timidity and indifference. Altogether 24 groups which were randomized into an experimental group and a control group participated in the study. Individual instruction plans were made for the children in the experimental group. The plans were based on test as well as observations and evaluations made by parents and teachers. Model learning was used to instruct children in their behavior, and problem situations were dealt with by means of role play and model situation methods. Teachers were given training for carrying out the program and following the individual development of children. Cooperation between parents and day-care centres was improved. According to the self-efficacy theory, psychological interaction processes enable the formation and reinforcement of the expectations of individual competence. Model learning programs, which provide a child with vicarious experiences, aim at the improvement of adjustment and self-concept. According to the program, learning is reinforced by vicarious reinforcement, verbal persuasion, performance attainments and self-reinforcement. (Bandura 1977, 1982; Gresham 1984; Velder 1984.) The individualized model learning program was carried out in the experimental group over a period of six months. According to the results, the experimental group made very significantly better progress in constructivity and activity (adjustment) than the control group and almost significantly better progress in self-identity (self-concept). Among the results concerning parents' educational practices were the following: Parents considered themselves to be accepting, but also severe; both parents were tender and expressive of emotions; mothers were pampering and patronizing; honesty was regarded as the most important educational objective. From the evaluations of educational actions one can conclude that parents know how they should proceed in situations that demand educational actions, but that they also use the educational actions they consider disadvantageous. Parents' positive educational practice was related to the degree of compliance (adjustment) shown by the child. ...
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