Resolving reading disability : Childhood predictors and adult-age outcomes
Eloranta, A.-K., Närhi, V., Eklund, K., Ahonen, T., & Aro, T. (2019). Resolving reading disability : Childhood predictors and adult-age outcomes. Dyslexia, 25 (1), 20-37. doi:10.1002/dys.1605
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© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
We examined frequency of adult‐age reading disability (RD) and its childhood predictors among 48 adults (20 to 39 years) with documented childhood RD, and contrasted their cognitive skills, education, and employment with 37 matched controls. Among individuals with childhood RD, more than half had improved in their reading fluency to the level where the set criterion for adult‐age RD was not met anymore. More fluent rapid naming, less severe childhood RD, and multiple support providers in childhood together predicted improvement of reading fluency. More fluent naming differentiated the childhood RD participants whose reading fluency had improved by adult‐age from those participants whose RD persisted to adult‐age. All the individuals with childhood RD performed weaker than the controls in adult‐age working memory, processing speed, and verbal skills. Educational level among both RD groups was lower than that among the controls. Unemployment of individuals with persistent adult‐age RD (31.6%) was higher than that of individuals with improved adult‐age RD (13.8%) or that of the controls (8.1%). According to our findings, rapid naming is one evident factor differentiating individuals with persisted RD from those with ameliorated reading fluency. Also, better adult‐age reading fluency has significance for adult‐age employment among individuals with childhood RD. ...