Strength Training Improves Metabolic Health Markers in Older Individual Regardless of Training Frequency
Ihalainen, J., Inglis, A., Mäkinen, T., Newton, R. U., Kainulainen, H., Kyröläinen, H., & Walker, S. (2019). Strength Training Improves Metabolic Health Markers in Older Individual Regardless of Training Frequency. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, Article 32. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00032
Published inFrontiers in Physiology
© 2019 Ihalainen, Inglis, Mäkinen, Newton, Kainulainen, Kyröläinen and Walker.
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of frequency, thereby increasing training volume, of resistance training on body composition, inflammation markers, lipid and glycemic profile in healthy older individuals (age range 65–75 year). Ninety-two healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one- (EX1), two- (EX2), or three- (EX3) times-per-week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2–5 sets and 4–12 repetitions per exercise and 7–9 exercises per session. All training groups attended supervised resistance training for 6 months. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and fasting blood samples were taken pre- and post-training. There were significant main effects of time for total fat mass (F = 28.12, P < 0.001) and abdominal fat mass (F = 20.72, P < 0.001). Pre- to post-study, statistically significant reductions in fat mass (1 = −1.3 ± 1.4 kg, P < 0.001, n = 26) were observed in EX3. Pre- to post-study reductions in low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration (1 = −0.38 ± 0.44 mmol·L −1 , P = 0.003, n = 19) were observed only in EX3, whereas a significant pre- to post-study increases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (0.14–0.19 mmol·L −1 ) were observed in all training groups. Most variables at baseline demonstrated a significant (negative) relationship when correlating baseline values with their change during the study including: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (r = −0.583, P < 0.001), high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = −0.471, P < 0.001, and systolic blood pressure (r = −0.402, P = 0.003). The present study suggests that having more than two resistance training sessions in a week could be of benefit in the management of body composition and lipid profile. Nevertheless, interestingly, and importantly, those individuals with a higher baseline in systolic blood pressure, IL-6 and hs-CRP derived greatest benefit from the resistance training intervention, regardless of how many times-a-week they trained. Finally, the present study found no evidence that higher training frequency would induce greater benefit regarding inflammation markers or glycemic profile in healthy older adults. ...
PublisherFrontiers Research Foundation
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
- Liikuntatieteiden tiedekunta 
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Inter‐individual variation in responses to resistance training in cardiometabolic health indicators Ahtiainen, Juha P.; Sallinen, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo; Sillanpää, Elina (John Wiley & Sons, 2020)Abstract Resistance training (RT) may improve metabolic health; however, the extent of its effectiveness is constantly evaluated to assess improvements in the group means, thus obscuring the heterogeneous individual ...
Training load does not affect detraining's effect on muscle volume, muscle strength and functional capacity among older adults Roie, Evelien Van; Walker, Simon; Driessche, Stijn Van; Baggen, Remco; Coudyzer, Walter; Bautmans, Ivan; Delecluse, Christophe (Elsevier Inc., 2017)Research underlines the potential of low-load resistance exercise in older adults. However, while the effects of detraining from high-load protocols have been established, it is not known whether gains from low-load training ...
Effects of a short-term resistance training protocol on risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in the elderly Inglis, Alistair (2016)The metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with negative health outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. The elderly are at particularly high risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, owing ...
Sarin, Heikki; Ahtiainen, Juha; Hulmi, Juha; Ihalainen, Johanna; Walker, Simon; Schildt, Maria; Perola, Markus; Peltonen, Heikki (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019)Introduction: Arising evidence suggests that resistance training has the potential to induce beneficial modulation of biomarker profile. To date, however, only immediate responses to resistance training have been ...
Dietary intake and strength training adaptation in 50-70 -year old men and women : with special reference to muscle mass, strength, serum anabolic hormone concentrations, blood pressure, blood lipids and lipoproteins and glycemic control Sallinen, Janne (University of Jyväskylä, 2007)Frailty has been defined as an age-related decrease of the physiologic systems that results in weakness, weight loss and decreased functional performance, thus increasing the risk of disability. The physical characteristics ...