Interactions between two parasites of brown trout (Salmo trutta) : Consequences of preinfection
Gopko, M., Chowdhury, M., & Taskinen, J. (2018). Interactions between two parasites of brown trout (Salmo trutta) : Consequences of preinfection. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (20), 9986-9997. doi:10.1002/ece3.4406
Published inEcology and Evolution
© 2018 the Authors
Preinfection by one parasitic species may facilitate or by contrast hamper the subsequent penetration and/or establishment of other parasites in a host. The biology of interacting species, timing of preinfection, and dosage of subsequent parasite exposure are likely important variables in this multiparasite dynamic infection process. The increased vulnerability to subsequent infection can be an important and often overlooked factor influencing parasite virulence. We investigated how the preinfection by freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera glochidia could influence the success of subsequent infection by the common trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum in brown trout Salmo trutta and vice versa whether preinfection by the trematode made fish more susceptible to glochidia infection. The first experiment was repeated twice with different (low and high) exposure doses to initiate the subsequent trematode infection, while in the second experiment we varied the timing of the preinfection with trematodes. The preinfection with glochidia made fish more vulnerable to subsequent infection with trematodes. Since the trematodes penetrate through the gills, we suggest that increased host vulnerability was most likely the result of increased respiration caused by the freshwater pearl mussel glochidia encysted on gills. In turn, brown trout preinfected with trematodes were more vulnerable to the subsequent glochidial infection, but only if they were preinfected shortly before the subsequent infection (20 hr). Fish preinfected with trematodes earlier (2 weeks before the subsequent infection) did not differ in their vulnerability to glochidia. These effects were observed at moderate intensities of infections similar to those that occur in nature. Our study demonstrates how the timing and sequence of exposure to parasitic species can influence infection success in a host–multiparasite system. It indicates that the negative influence of glochidia on host fitness is likely to be underestimated and that this should be taken into consideration when organizing freshwater pearl mussel restoration procedures. ...