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dc.contributor.authorWaldron, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorEndler, John A.
dc.contributor.authorValkonen, Janne
dc.contributor.authorHonma, Atsushi
dc.contributor.authorDobler, Susanne
dc.contributor.authorMappes, Johanna
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-03T11:15:27Z
dc.date.available2017-04-03T11:15:27Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citationWaldron, S., Endler, J. A., Valkonen, J., Honma, A., Dobler, S., & Mappes, J. (2017). Experimental evidence suggests that specular reflectance and glossy appearance help amplify warning signals. <em>Scientific Reports</em>, 7, 257. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00217-5">doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00217-5</a>
dc.identifier.otherTUTKAID_73371
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/53457
dc.description.abstractSpecular reflection appears as a bright spot or highlight on any smooth glossy convex surface and is caused by a near mirror-like reflectance off the surface. Convex shapes always provide the ideal geometry for highlights, areas of very strong reflectance, regardless of the orientation of the surface or position of the receiver. Despite highlights and glossy appearance being common in chemically defended insects, their potential signalling function is unknown. We tested the role of highlights in warning colouration of a chemically defended, alpine leaf beetle, Oreina cacaliae. We reduced the beetles’ glossiness, hence their highlights, by applying a clear matt finish varnish on their elytra. We used blue tits as predators to examine whether the manipulation affected their initial latency to attack, avoidance learning and generalization of warning colouration. The birds learned to avoid both dull and glossy beetles but they initially avoided glossy prey more than dull prey. Interestingly, avoidance learning was generalized asymmetrically: birds that initially learned to avoid dull beetles avoided glossy beetles equally strongly, but not vice versa. We conclude that specular reflectance and glossiness can amplify the warning signal of O. cacaliae, augmenting avoidance learning, even if it is not critical for it.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScientific Reports
dc.subject.otherwarning colouration
dc.subject.otherspecular reflection
dc.subject.otherglossiness
dc.subject.otherleaf beetles
dc.subject.otherOreina cacaliae
dc.titleExperimental evidence suggests that specular reflectance and glossy appearance help amplify warning signals
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-201703291804
dc.contributor.laitosBio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosThe Department of Biological and Environmental Scienceen
dc.contributor.oppiaineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.date.updated2017-03-29T15:15:13Z
dc.type.coarjournal article
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn2045-2322
dc.relation.volume7
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© the Authors, 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons License.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1038/s41598-017-00217-5


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© the Authors, 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons License.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © the Authors, 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons License.