Vertebrate defense against parasites: Interactions between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance
Klemme, I., & Karvonen, A. (2017). Vertebrate defense against parasites: Interactions between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. Ecology and Evolution, 7(2), 561-571. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2645
Published inEcology and Evolution
© 2016 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence.
Hosts can utilize different types of defense against the effects of parasitism, including avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. Typically, there is tremendous heterogeneity among hosts in these defense mechanisms that may be rooted in the costs associated with defense and lead to trade‐offs with other life‐history traits. Trade‐offs may also exist between the defense mechanisms, but the relationships between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance have rarely been studied. Here, we assessed these three defense traits under common garden conditions in a natural host–parasite system, the trematode eye‐fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and its second intermediate fish host. We looked at host individuals originating from four genetically distinct populations of two closely related salmonid species (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta) to estimate the magnitude of variation in these defense traits and the relationships among them. We show species‐specific variation in resistance and tolerance and population‐specific variation in resistance. Further, we demonstrate evidence for a trade‐off between resistance and tolerance. Our results suggest that the variation in host defense can at least partly result from a compromise between different interacting defense traits, the relative importance of which is likely to be shaped by environmental components. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering different components of the host defense system when making predictions on the outcome of host–parasite interactions. ...