Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium
CREAM consortium. (2016). Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium. Scientific Reports, 6, Article 25853. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep25853
Published inScientific Reports
© the Authors, 2016. This is an open access article published by Nature Publishing Group and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7–15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N=10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P=6.6E–08) and 2.3% (P=6.9E–21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N=5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P=6.3E–04). ...
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © the Authors, 2016. This is an open access article published by Nature Publishing Group and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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