Reciprocal interaction matrix reveals complex genetic and dose-dependent specificity among coinfecting parasites
Seppälä, O., Karvonen, A., Rellstab, C., Louhi, K.-R., & Jokela, J. (2012). Reciprocal interaction matrix reveals complex genetic and dose-dependent specificity among coinfecting parasites. American Naturalist, 180 (3), 306-315.
Published inAmerican Naturalist
DisciplineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
© 2012 by The University of Chicago. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
Understanding genetic specificity in factors determining the outcome of host-parasite interactions is especially important as it contributes to parasite epidemiology, virulence, and maintenance of genetic variation. Such specificity, however, is still generally poorly understood. We examined genetic specificity in interactions among coinfecting parasites. In natural populations, individual hosts are often simultaneously infected by multiple parasite species and genotypes that interact. Such interactions could maintain genetic variation in parasite populations if they are genetically specific so that the relative fitness of parasite genotypes varies across host individuals depending on (1) the presence/absence of coinfections and/or (2) the genetic composition of the coinfecting parasite community. We tested these predictions using clones of fish eye flukes Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and Diplostomum gasterostei. We found that interactions among parasites had a strong genetic basis and that this modified genetic variation in infection success of D. pseudospathaceum between single and multiple infections as well as across multiply infected host individuals depending on the genetic identity of the coinfecting D. gasterostei. The relative magnitude of these effects, however, depended on the exposure dose, suggesting that ecological factors can modify genetic interactions between parasites. ...