Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements
Kari, J. T., Pehkonen, J., Hirvensalo, M., Yang, X., Hutri-Kähönen, N., Raitakari, O. T., & Tammelin, T. H. (2015). Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements. PLoS ONE, 10(8), Article e0135651. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135651
Published inPLoS ONE
DisciplineBasic or discovery scholarshipTaloustiedeLiikuntapedagogiikkaBasic or discovery scholarshipEconomicsSport Pedagogy
© 2015 Kari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity. ...
PublisherPublic Library of Science
ISSN Search the Publication Forum1932-6203
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
- Kauppakorkeakoulu 
- Liikuntatieteiden tiedekunta 
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2015 Kari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Convergent Validity of a Physical Activity Questionnaire against Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults : The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study Hirvensalo, Mirja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Yang, Xiaolin; Telama, Risto; Heinonen, Ilkka; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Salin, Kasper; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H. (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2017)Background: Traditionally, a self-reported questionnaire has been a cost-effective method of gathering information about physical activity (PA). An objective measurement, such as the use of a pedometer, can be used to ...
Directly measured and self-reported physical activity in a sample of Finnish secondary school students Gråsten, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo (Scientific Research Publishing Inc, 2012)Background: Previous studies based on self-reports show that a majority of children and adolescents in Western countries fail to achieve the recommendation of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) on a ...
Directly measured and self-reported physical activity in a sample of Finnish secondary school students Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo (Scientific Research Publishing Inc, 2012)Previous studies based on self-reports show that a majority of children and adolescents in Western countries fail to achieve the recommendation of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) on a daily basis. ...
Changes in daily steps and body mass index and waist to height ratio during four year follow-up in adults : Cardiovascular risk in young Finns study Salin, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Telama, Risto; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija (MDPI, 2017)Aims: Over the study years, there was a significant increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in middle aged Finnish adults. Methods: Data were obtained from 1033 Finnish adults from the Cardiovascular ...
Associations of partnering transition and socioeconomic status with a four-year change in daily steps among Finnish adults Salin, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpää, Anna; Magnussen, Costan G.; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Telama, Risto; Tammelin, Tuija H. (Sage, 2019)Aim: The aim of this prospective four-year follow-up study was to examine how socioeconomic status (SES) and change in marital status are associated with the change in pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) in adulthood ...