Time is the key Music and Altered States of Consciusness
Fachner, J. (2011). Time is the key – Music and Altered States of Consciusness. In E. Cardeña, & M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering Consciousness: A multidisciplinary perspective. Volume 1: History, Culture and the Humanities (pp. 355-376). Santa Barbara: Praeger.
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Introduction: In this chapter, I will summarize the literature on how music and altered states of consciousness (ASC) are connected. Essential aspects include induction and expression of emotions and rhythmic body movements to music and how an altered experience of music is connected to states of altered temporality. Winkelman (2000) stressed the human capacity for experiencing ASC as a fundamental biological function. Studies on brain functions of altered music experience and temporality (Fachner, 2006b, 2009; Shanon, 2001) convey the natural bases of these phenomena, which have been utilized in shamanistic practice for ages. As Rouget suggested: To shamanize, in other words to sing and dance, is as much a corporeal technique as a spiritual exercise. Insofar as he is at the same time singer, instrumentalist, and dancer, the shaman, among all practitioners of trance, should be seen as the one who by far makes the most complete use of music. (Rouget, 1985, p. 319)