Effects of 2‐year dietary and physical activity intervention on cognition in children : a nonrandomized controlled trial
Naveed, S., Sallinen, T., Eloranta, A., Skog, H., Jalkanen, H., Brage, S., Ekelund, U., Pentikäinen, H., Savonen, K., Lakka, T. A., & Haapala, E. A. (2023). Effects of 2‐year dietary and physical activity intervention on cognition in children : a nonrandomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, Early View. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14464
© 2023 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background and Objective We investigated the effects of a combined dietary and PA intervention on cognition in children and whether changes in diet quality, PA, sedentary behavior (SB), and sedentary time (ST) are associated with changes in cognition. Methods We conducted a 2-year nonrandomized controlled trial in 504 children aged 6–9 years at baseline. The children were allocated to a combined dietary and PA intervention group (n = 237) or a control group (n = 160) without blinding. Interventions The children and their parents allocated to the intervention group had six dietary counseling sessions of 30–45 min and six PA counseling sessions of 30–45 min during the 2-year intervention period. The children were also encouraged to participate in after-school exercise clubs. Cognition was assessed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. We assessed dietary factors by 4 days food records and computed the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) as a measure of diet quality. PA and ST were assessed by a combined heart rate and body movement monitor, types of PA and SB by a questionnaire. Results The intervention had no effect on cognition. Increased BSDS and consumption of low-fat milk and decreased consumption of red meat and sausages were associated with improved cognition over 2 years. Increased organized sports, ST, and reading were positively, while unsupervised PA, computer use, and writing were negatively associated with cognition. Conclusion Combined dietary and PA intervention had no effect on cognition. Improved diet quality and increased organized sports and reading were associated with improved cognition. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe PANIC study has been supported financially by grants from the Juho Vainio Foundation, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health of Finland, Research Committee of the Kuopio University Hospital Catchment Area (State Research Funding), Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Finnish Cultural Foundation, Foundation for Paediatric Research, Diabetes Research Foundation in Finland, Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Paavo Nurmi Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, and the city of Kuopio. The work of SB was funded by the UK Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/3) and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Cambridge (IS- BRC- 1215- 20 014). ...
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