Modeling of the Achilles Subtendons and Their Interactions in a Framework of the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation
Obrezkov, L. P., Finni, T., & Matikainen, M. K. (2022). Modeling of the Achilles Subtendons and Their Interactions in a Framework of the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation. Materials, 15(24), Article 8906. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248906
© 2022 the Authors
Experimental results have revealed the sophisticated Achilles tendon (AT) structure, including its material properties and complex geometry. The latter incorporates a twisted design and composite construction consisting of three subtendons. Each of them has a nonstandard cross-section. All these factors make the AT deformation analysis computationally demanding. Generally, 3D finite solid elements are used to develop models for AT because they can discretize almost any shape, providing reliable results. However, they also require dense discretization in all three dimensions, leading to a high computational cost. One way to reduce degrees of freedom is the utilization of finite beam elements, requiring only line discretization over the length of subtendons. However, using the material models known from continuum mechanics is challenging because these elements do not usually have 3D elasticity in their descriptions. Furthermore, the contact is defined at the beam axis instead of using a more general surface-to-surface formulation. This work studies the continuum beam elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) for AT modeling. ANCF beam elements require discretization only in one direction, making the model less computationally expensive. Recent work demonstrates that these elements can describe various cross-sections and materials models, thus allowing the approximation of AT complexity. In this study, the tendon model is reproduced by the ANCF continuum beam elements using the isotropic incompressible model to present material features. ...
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- Liikuntatieteiden tiedekunta 
Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Academy Project, AoF
Additional information about fundingThis research was funded by The Academy of Finland (Decisions No. 299033 and 323168).
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