Removal of Ammonium Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Alkali-Activated Analcime as Sorbent
Runtti, H., Sundhararasu, E., Pesonen, J., Tuomikoski, S., Hu, T., Lassi, U., & Kangas, T. (2023). Removal of Ammonium Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Alkali-Activated Analcime as Sorbent. ChemEngineering, 7(1), Article 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7010005
Hu, Tao |
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Five alkali-activated analcime (ANA) sorbents (ANA-MK 1, ANA 2, ANA 3, ANA-MK 4, and ANA-MK 5) were developed for ammonium (NH4+) ion removal. Acid treatment and calcination were used as pre-treatments for analcime, and metakaolin (MK) was used as a blending agent in three sorbents. Sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of sorbent dosage (1–20 g L−1), initial NH4+ ion concentration (5–1000 g L−1), and contact time (1 min–24 h). ANA-MK 1, ANA 2, and ANA-MK 4 were the most efficient sorbents for NH4+ ion removal, with a maximum experimental sorption uptake of 29.79, 26.00, and 22.24 mg g−1, respectively. ANA 3 and ANA-MK 5 demonstrated lower sorption capacities at 7.18 and 12.65 mg g−1, respectively. The results for the sorption of NH4+ ions onto the alkali-activated analcime surfaces were modeled using several isotherms. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, and Bi-Langmuir isotherms were the best isotherm models to represent the studied systems. The results of the kinetic studies showed the maximum NH4+ ion removal percentage of the sorbents was ~80%, except for ANA-MK 5, which had a ~70% removal. Moreover, the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models were applied to the experimental data. The results showed that the sorption process for ANA-MK 1, ANA 2, ANA 3, and ANA-MK 4 followed the Elovich model, whereas the pseudo-second-order model provided the best correlation for ANA-MK 5. ...
ISSN Search the Publication Forum2305-7084
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Related funder(s)Regional Council of Central Ostrobothnia
Funding program(s)ERDF European Regional Development Fund, React-EU
Additional information about fundingThis study was conducted as part of WaterPro (ERDF Project No. A74635, funded by the Central Ostrobothnia Regional Council, the European Union, the European Regional Development Fund, and the Leverage from the EU) and was supported by Maaja vesitekniikan tukiry and K.H. Renlund Foundation.
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