COVID-19 Lockdown : A Global Study Investigating the Effect of Athletes’ Sport Classification and Sex on Training Practices
Washif, J. A., Sandbakk, Ø., Seiler, S., Haugen, T., Farooq, A., Quarrie, K., Janse van Rensburg, D. C., Krug, I., Verhagen, E., Wong, D. P., Mujika, I., Cortis, C., Haddad, M., Ahmadian, O., Al Jufaili, M., Al-Horani, R. A., Al-Mohannadi, A. S., Aloui, A., Ammar, A., . . . Chamari, K. (2022). COVID-19 Lockdown : A Global Study Investigating the Effect of Athletes’ Sport Classification and Sex on Training Practices. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 17(8), 1242-1256. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2021-0543
© 2022 Human Kinetics
Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes’ knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May–July 2020) assessing knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward training. Sports were classified as team sports (45%), endurance (20%), power/technical (10%), combat (9%), aquatic (6%), recreational (4%), racquet (3%), precision (2%), parasports (1%), and others (1%). Further analysis by sex was performed. Results: During lockdown, athletes practiced body-weight-based exercises routinely (67% females and 64% males), ranging from 50% (precision) to 78% (parasports). More sport-specific technical skills were performed in combat, parasports, and precision (∼50%) than other sports (∼35%). Most athletes (range: 50% [parasports] to 75% [endurance]) performed cardiorespiratory training (trivial sex differences). Compared to prelockdown, perceived training intensity was reduced by 29% to 41%, depending on sport (largest decline: ∼38% in team sports, unaffected by sex). Some athletes (range: 7%–49%) maintained their training intensity for strength, endurance, speed, plyometric, change-of-direction, and technical training. Athletes who previously trained ≥5 sessions per week reduced their volume (range: 18%–28%) during lockdown. The proportion of athletes (81%) training ≥60 min/session reduced by 31% to 43% during lockdown. Males and females had comparable moderate levels of training knowledge (56% vs 58%) and beliefs/attitudes (54% vs 56%). Conclusions: Changes in athletes’ training practices were sport-specific, with few or no sex differences. Team-based sports were generally more susceptible to changes than individual sports. Policy makers should provide athletes with specific training arrangements and educational resources to facilitate remote and/or home-based training during lockdown-type events. ...
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Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown : Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents Washif, Jad Adrian; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Krug, Isabel; Pyne, David B.; Verhagen, Evert; Taylor, Lee; Wong, Del P.; Mujika, Iñigo; Cortis, Cristina; Haddad, Monoem; Ahmadian, Omid; Al Jufaili, Mahmood; Al-Horani, Ramzi A.; Al-Mohannadi, Abdulla Saeed; Aloui, Asma; Ammar, Achraf; Arifi, Fitim; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Batuev, Mikhail; Beaven, Christopher Martyn; Beneke, Ralph; Bici, Arben; Bishnoi, Pallawi; Bogwasi, Lone; Bok, Daniel; Boukhris, Omar; Boullosa, Daniel; Bragazzi, Nicola; Brito, Joao; Palacios Cartagena, Roxana Paola; Chaouachi, Anis; Cheung, Stephen S.; Chtourou, Hamdi; Cosma, Germina; Debevec, Tadej; DeLang, Matthew D.; Dellal, Alexandre; Dönmez, Gürhan; Driss, Tarak; Peña Duque, Juan David; Eirale, Cristiano; Elloumi, Mohamed; Foster, Carl; Franchini, Emerson; Fusco, Andrea; Galy, Olivier; Gastin, Paul B.; Gill, Nicholas; Girard, Olivier; Gregov, Cvita; Halson, Shona; Hammouda, Omar; Hanzlíková, Ivana; Hassanmirzaei, Bahar; Haugen, Thomas; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Muñoz, Helú Hussein; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Holtzhausen, Louis; Hue, Olivier; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ihalainen, Johanna K.; James, Carl; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C.; Joseph, Saju; Kamoun, Karim; Khaled, Mehdi; Khalladi, Karim; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kok, Lian-Yee; MacMillan, Lewis; Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Jose; Matsunaga, Ryo; Memishi, Shpresa; Millet, Grégoire P.; Moussa-Chamari, Imen; Musa Danladi, Ibrahim; Nguyen, Hoang Minh Thuan; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Owen, Adam; Padulo, Johnny; Cayaban Pagaduan, Jeffrey; Perera, Nirmala Panagodage; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Pillay, Lervasen; Popa, Arporn; Pudasaini, Avishkar; Rabbani, Alireza; Rahayu, Tandiyo; Romdhani, Mohamed; Salamh, Paul; Sarkar, Abu-Sufian; Schillinger, Andy; Seiler, Stephen; Setyawati, Heny; Shrestha, Navina; Suraya, Fatona; Tabben, Montassar; Trabelsi, Khaled; Urhausen, Axel; Valtonen, Maarit; Weber, Johanna; Whiteley, Rodney; Zrane, Adel; Zerguini, Yacine; Zmijewski, Piotr; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ben Saad, Helmi; Chamari, Karim (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)Objective Our objective was to explore the training-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices of athletes and the influence of lockdowns in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe ...
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