Behaviour of Extractives in Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Bark during Pile Storage
Halmemies, E. S., Alén, R., Hellström, J., Läspä, O., Nurmi, J., Hujala, M., & Brännström, H. E. (2022). Behaviour of Extractives in Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Bark during Pile Storage. Molecules, 27(4), Article 1186. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041186
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
The current practices regarding the procurement chain of forest industry sidestreams, such as conifer bark, do not always lead to optimal conditions for preserving individual chemical compounds. This study investigates the standard way of storing bark in large piles in an open area. We mainly focus on the degradation of the most essential hydrophilic and hydrophobic extractives and carbohydrates. First, two large 450 m3 piles of bark from Norway spruce (Picea abies) were formed, one of which was covered with snow. The degradation of the bark extractives was monitored for 24 weeks. Samples were taken from the middle, side and top of the pile. Each sample was extracted at 120 °C with both n-hexane and water, and the extracts produced were then analysed chromatographically using gas chromatography with flame ionisation or mass selective detection and high-performance liquid chromatography. The carbohydrates were next analysed using acidic hydrolysis and acidic methanolysis, followed by chromatographic separation of the monosaccharides formed and their derivatives. The results showed that the most intensive degradation occurred during the first 4 weeks of storage. The levels of hydrophilic extractives were also found to decrease drastically (69% in normal pile and 73% in snow-covered pile) during storage, whereas the decrease in hydrophobic extractives was relatively stable (15% in normal pile and 8% in snow-covered pile). The top of the piles exhibited the most significant decrease in the total level of extractives (73% in normal and snow-covered pile), whereas the bark in the middle of the pile retained the highest amount of extractives (decreased by 51% in normal pile and 47% in snow-covered pile) after 24-week storage. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe authors would like to express their gratitude for the funding received from the European Regional Development Fund, Interreg Botnia Atlantica, for the project BioHub (20200866), which made all the experimental work possible.
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