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dc.contributor.authorTuovinen, Teemu
dc.contributor.authorTynjälä, Pekka
dc.contributor.authorVielma, Tuomas
dc.contributor.authorLassi, Ulla
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-19T07:04:46Z
dc.date.available2021-10-19T07:04:46Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationTuovinen, T., Tynjälä, P., Vielma, T., & Lassi, U. (2021). Utilization of waste sodium sulfate from battery chemical production in neutral electrolytic pickling. <i>Journal of Cleaner Production</i>, <i>324</i>, Article 129237. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129237" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129237</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_101482028
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78255
dc.description.abstractSeveral industrial activities produce metal sulfates, which are controlled by strict limitations for wastewater concentrations of sulfate. One emerging area where these activities occur is the production of lithium-ion battery chemicals in which sodium sulfates are formed because of cathode precursor co-precipitation. Several solutions for sulfate removal exist, but one option is to reuse the sulfate side stream in other processes to increase circular economy and atom efficiency. In this paper, the reuse of sodium sulfate solution in a steel industry pickling solution is considered. Neutral electrolytic pickling experiments were carried out to compare the pickling behavior of the electrolyte dissolved from pure sodium sulfate and the electrolyte diluted from a side stream solution. Effect of impure electrolyte was evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Concentrations of the metal ions were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated a slight increase in current efficiency with the side stream electrolyte solution, while overall the pickling behavior remained similar. This suggests that a side stream sodium sulfate solution could be used as a pickling electrolyte, reducing the need for pure reagents.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Cleaner Production
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.subject.otherSodium sulfate
dc.subject.otherBattery chemical
dc.subject.otherElectrolytic pickling
dc.titleUtilization of waste sodium sulfate from battery chemical production in neutral electrolytic pickling
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202110195284
dc.contributor.laitosKokkolan yliopistokeskus Chydeniusfi
dc.contributor.laitosKokkola University Consortium Chydeniusen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn0959-6526
dc.relation.volume324
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.subject.ysoteollisuusjätevesi
dc.subject.ysoakut
dc.subject.ysoterästeollisuus
dc.subject.ysoenergiateollisuus
dc.subject.ysojäteveden käsittely
dc.subject.ysosulfaatit
dc.subject.ysoelektrolyysi
dc.subject.ysouudelleenkäyttö
dc.subject.ysotalteenotto
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p5792
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p2306
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p14392
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p24346
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p17761
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p13742
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p8095
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p13211
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p11190
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129237
jyx.fundinginformationThe authors want to acknowledge the research funding by Business Finland (University of Oulu, BATCircle, Dnro 5877/31/2018).


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