Environmental factors influencing effects of chemicals on soil animals : studies at population and community levels
Effects of abiotic environmental factors like soil organic matter content, soil moisture and temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to soil animals were studied in laboratory experiments. An insecticide, dimethoate, and two fungicides, benomyl and propiconazole, were used as reference chemicals in the experiments. Two types of experiments were conducted: single species tests and microcosm experiments. Single species experiments revealed that soil organic matter content affects substantially the toxicity of dimethoate to collembolans. Increasing organic matter content decreased dimethoate concentration in the soil pore water, and hence its toxicity. Lowering the temperature increased the toxic effects, but only slightly. Population level effects lasted longer at low temperature due to slower reproduction of collembolans. Decreasing the soil moisture either decreased (dimethoate) or increased (benomyl) the toxic effects on an enchytraeid worm. In the microcosm experiments pesticide application and drought decreased different soil animal groups resulting in lower total soil animal numbers than exposured to either of these stressors alone. Both fungicides had only minor effects on soil animal communities and soil processes, possibly due to relative low significance of fungal based energy channel in agricultural soil. It was revealed that both single species tests and microcosm experiments are needed when assessing ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in the environment. ...
- Artikkeli I: Martikainen, E. (1996). Toxicity of dimethoate to some soil animal species in different soil types. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 33, 128-136. DOI: 10.1006/eesa.1996.0016
- Artikkeli II: Puurtinen, M. & Martikainen, E. (1997). Effect of soil moisture on pesticide toxicity to an enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus sp. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 33, 34-41. DOI: 10.1007/s002449900220
- Artikkeli III: Martikainen, E., & Krogh, P. H. (1999). Effects of soil organic matter content and temperature on toxicity of dimethoate to Folsomia fimetaria (Collembola:Isotomiidae). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(5), 865-872. DOI: 10.1002/etc.5620180508
- Artikkeli IV: Martikainen, E., & Rantalainen, M.-L. (1999). Temperature-Time Relationship in Collembolan Response to Chemical exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 42(x), 236-244. DOI: 10.1006/eesa.1998.1754
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