Effects of Combined Strength and Endurance Training on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Serum Hormones During a 6-Month Crisis Management Operation
Pihlainen, K., Kyröläinen, H., Santtila, M., Ojanen, T., Raitanen, J., & Häkkinen, K. (2022). Effects of Combined Strength and Endurance Training on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Serum Hormones During a 6-Month Crisis Management Operation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 36(9), 2361-2370. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003902
Published inJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
DisciplineLiikuntapsykologiaValmennus- ja testausoppiLiikuntafysiologiaSport and Exercise PsychologyScience of Sport Coaching and Fitness TestingExercise Physiology
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Very few studies have examined the impact of training interventions on soldier readiness during an international military operation. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of combined strength and endurance training on body composition, physical performance, and hormonal status during a 6-month international military deployment consisting of typical peacekeeping tasks, e.g., patrolling, observation, and on-base duties. Soldiers (n = 78) were randomly allocated to a control group (C) or one of 3 combined whole-body strength and endurance training groups with varying strength-to-endurance training emphasis (Es = 25/75%, SE = 50/50% or Se = 75/25% of strength/endurance training). Body composition, physical performance (3000-m run, standing long jump [SLJ], isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the lower [MVC lower] and upper extremities [MVC upper ], muscle endurance tests), and selected serum hormone concentrations were determined prior to training (PRE), and after 9 (MID) and 19 (POST) weeks of training. Within- and between-group changes were analyzed using linear regression models. The average combined strength and endurance training frequency of the total subject group was 3 ± 2 training sessions per week. No changes were observed in physical performance variables in the intervention groups, whereas SLJ decreased by 1.9% in C (p < 0.05). Maximal voluntary contraction lower increased by 12.8% in the combined intervention group (p < 0.05), and this was significantly different to C (p < 0.05). Testosterone-to-cortisol ratio increased in SE and Se (p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in C. The intervention groups maintained or improved their physical performance during deployment, which is beneficial for operational readiness. However, the high interindividual variation observed in training adaptations highlights the importance of training individualization during prolonged military operations. ...
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins; National Strength and Conditioning Association
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- Liikuntatieteiden tiedekunta 
Additional information about fundingThe authors appreciate the financial support of the Centre for Military Medicine, Scientific Advisory Board for Defence (MATINE), the Defence Support Foundation and, the contribution of the participating soldiers.
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