Šekspir v tvorčeskoj èvolûcii Puškina
The present thesis is concerned with the problem of Pushkin's creative evolution under the influence of Shakespeare's creative works, with a special emphasis on his play Measure for Measure. The central focus of the research is Pushkin's creative development, his spiritual, philosophical and artistic growth during the years of his studies of Shakespeare, namely, from early 1820s up to his death in 1837. The essence of the problem can be summarised as follows: the dialogue between Pushkin and Shakespeare is a significant part of the history of Russian literature and philological studies. This thesis attempts to examine the presence of Shakespeare in Pushkin's creative works, the latter's reference to the former's plays as well as his characters and plots. The research delineates the terms of Pushkin's 'Shakespearism', providing a detailed analysis of Pushkin's texts and its degree of dependence on Shakespeare. The study presents a detailed analysis of the traces of Shakespeare's influence in one particular poem by Pushkin, entitled, The Angelo. This poem was named after Shakespeare's infamous character from his so-called "problem play" Measure for Measure. Prior to writing Angelo Pushkin undertook an attempt to translate Shakespeare's play. Pushkin translated the first scene from Measure for Measure in 1833, but abandoned the project in order to create his own original literary product. Pushkin's incomplete, albeit successful (one might even venture to call it brilliant!) translation was a first step towards the composition of his poem The Angelo. Many Russian and foreign researchers share the common opinion that Pushkin's remake of Measure for Measure is not only as good as the original, but even more complete than Shakespeare's play. Pushkin changed the genre, plot, composition and the conception of Shakespeare's characters. He changed the title of Shakespeare's creation and gave the poem a new original spirit, with a Russian accent, wherein lies the most important part or even the embryo of his creativity. Nevertheless, most of the poem's text consists of Shakespeare's words and appears to be a free translation-recreation. Pushkin's work on the poem The Angelo reflects his need for spiritual growth and creative evolution. Pushkin's main artistic aim during this period of his creative evolution was the embodiment of the national character in Russian literary tradition. Pushkin, like his predecessor and mentor Shakespeare, also participated in creation of the national literary language of his native country. The present study attempts to provide a comprehensive account of Shakespeare's influence on Pushkin which will be elaborated during defence of this thesis. The completed research is fundamental for the philosophical generalisations that underline comparative research on these two geniuses, the English, Shakespeare, and the Russian, Pushkin. ...
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