Components of defence strategies in society’s information environment : a case study based on the grounded theory
Mustonen-Ollila, E. B., Lehto, M., & Heikkonen, J. (2020). Components of defence strategies in society’s information environment : a case study based on the grounded theory. Security and Defence Quarterly, 28(1), 19-43. https://doi.org/10.35467/sdq/118186
Published inSecurity and Defence Quarterly
© 2020 E. B. Mustonen-Ollila, M. Lehto, J. Heikkonen published by War Studies University, Poland.
Objectives: The goal of this study is to explore the components of defence strategies faced by society in its information environment, and how these strategies are inter-related. Methods: This qualitative in-depth case study applied past research and empirical evidence to identify the components of defence strategies in a society’s information environment. The collected data were analysed using the Grounded Theory approach and a conceptual framework with the components of defence strategies and the relationships between these components being developed using the Grounded Theory. Results: This study shows that the goal of politically and militarily hostile actors is to weaken society’s information environment, and that their operations are coordinated and carried out over a long time period. The data validate past studies and reveal relationships between the components of defence strategies. These relationships increase the confidence in the validity of these components and their relationships, and expand the emerging theory. Conclusions: First, the data and findings showed 16 inter-connected components of defence strategies. Second, they showed that the political, military, societal, power, and personal goals of the hostile actors carrying out cyber operations and cyber attacks are to weaken society’s information environment. Third, they revealed that cyber operations and cyber attacks against networks, information and infrastructures are coordinated operations, carried out over a long time period. Finally, it was revealed that the actors defending society’s information environment must rapidly change their own components of defence strategies and use the newest tools and methods for these components in networks, infrastructures and social media. ...
PublisherWar Studies University
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Snowball ICA : A Model Order Free Independent Component Analysis Strategy for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Hu, Guoqiang; Waters, Abigail B.; Aslan, Serdar; Frederick, Blaise; Cong, Fengyu; Nickerson, Lisa D. (Frontiers Media, 2020)In independent component analysis (ICA), the selection of model order (i.e., number of components to be extracted) has crucial effects on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain network analysis. Model order ...
Äijänen, Matti (2001)
Lehto, Martti; Henselmann, Gerhard (Academic Conferences International, 2020)Cyber warfare, information warfare, electronic warfare, command and control warfare, spectrum warfare. Those are only some of the names by which researchers and military experts describe their offensive and defensive ...
Understanding the inward emotion-focused coping strategies of individual users in response to mobile malware threats Xin, Tong; Siponen, Mikko; Chen, Sihua (Taylor & Francis, 2021)According to coping theory, individuals cope with information system threats by adopting either problem-focused coping (PFC) or emotion-focused coping (EFC). However, little is known about EFC in the information security ...
Lindstedt, Carita; Murphy, Liam; Mappes, Johanna (The Royal Society Publishing, 2019)Antipredator strategies of the pupal stage in insects have received little attention in comparison to larval or adult stages. This is despite the fact that predation risk can be high during the pupal stage, making it a ...