Nuorten koettu terveys, terveyskäyttäytyminen ja sosiaalistumisympäristö Virossa
The aim of the present study was to compare perceived health, health behaviour and socialising factors Estonian- and Russian-speaking 11, 13 and 1S-year-old adolescents in Estonia. Another aim was to describe changes in Estonian-speaking adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour in 1994 and 1998. The study is part of an international, WHO-coordinated survey of school children's health and lifestyle (Health Behaviour of School Aged Children -AWHO Cross-National Survey, the HBSC-Study), in which Estonia has participated since 1994. The study was guided by the socialization environment model as defined by Bronfenbrenner (7979).In this particular study, the features of the socialisation environment, that is, the socialising factors, were home, school and friends. The data used were from the HBSC-study in Estonia in1994 and 1998. In 1994 the final population of the cleaned data consisted of 3516 adolescents (response rate 85%), 2680 of which were Estonian-speaking and 836 Russian-speaking. In 1998 the final population of the cleaned data consisted of 1897 Estonian-speaking adolescents (response rate 63%). The data were collected using a standardised questionnaire to which pupils responded anonymously during a class period. The results were analysed using percentage distributions, crosstabulations, logistic regression analyses, LISREL analysis and MCA analysis. The results showed that in 1994 Russian-speaking 11-l5-year-old schoolchildren regarded that they were very healthy (30%) and very happy (25%) more often than did Estonian-speaking school children (17% and 10 %, respectively). They also had fewer symptoms than Estonian-speaking pupils: more than half of Estonian-speaking adolescents (51%) had three or more psychosomatic symptoms a week, while the corresponding percentage among Russian-speaking pupils was 37%. Twenty-two per cent of 15-year-olds used alcohol monthly, while the percentage of those smoking weekly was13%. Gender differences in smoking and alcohol consumption were considerable. It was more common among boys than girls to smoke weekly and use alcohol monthly. In the oldest age group Estonian-speaking adolescents who used alcohol and smoked considered their health worse than Russian-speaking adolescents. In the present study school experiences and friends explained adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour significantly better than factors related to home. Nevertheless, among Estonian-speaking adolescents good economic situation of the family had a significant correlation with positive health experiences and physical activity. Similarly, the significance of school and friends on perceived health and health behaviour was statistically more significant among Estonian-speaking than among Russian-speaking adolescents. The structural equation model showed that home, school experiences, friends, perceived health and health behaviour were statistically significantly correlated. Adolescents' use of alcohol, smoking and depression had increased in Estonian-speaking schools between 1994 and 1998. Simultaneously, however, physical activity and positive health experiences had become more frequent. In the period between 1.994 and 1998 the differences between boys and girls in use of alcohol and smoking had narrowed considerably. The information provided by the study can be used in health education and health promotion as well as in the planning of research work in Estonia. ...
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