Self-efficacy and enjoyment of physical activity in children : factorial validity of two pictorial scales
Morano, M., Bortoli, L., Ruiz, M. C., Vitali, F., & Robazza, C. (2019). Self-efficacy and enjoyment of physical activity in children : factorial validity of two pictorial scales. PeerJ, 7, Article e7402. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7402
© The Authors, 2019.
Background. Self-efficacy and enjoyment are two main constructs proposed within many motivational theories in any human endeavor, sport and physical activity included. Methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of two pictorial scales measuring self-efficacy and enjoyment levels in a sample of 14,035 Italian schoolchildren (7,075 boys and 6,960 girls, 6- to 7-year-olds). An important feature of the two scales is that they are in a pictorial format in order to prompt a straightforward understanding in children. The whole sample was randomly split in two subsamples according to gender and age and the factor structure of the measures was examined across subsamples. Results. Data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis, which yielded satisfactory fit indices on the measures of both subsamples. Overall findings supported the single factor structure of the scales, which can be easily administered to 6- to 7-year-old children to assess two relevant psychological constructs in physical education. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe study was part of a large project named “Scuola in Movimento” (“Movement at School”) targeting first and second grade children from schools located in the Abruzzo region of Italy. The project was realized by the Health Department of the Abruzzo Region in collaboration with the Regional Sport School of the Olympic Committee, the Regional School Office, the Italian Paralympic Committee, the Universities of L’Aquila and Chieti-Pescara, and the Italian Sport Medical Federation. ...
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